GTS is chemotherapeutic retro-conversion characterized by an increase in metastatic mass after complete eradication of a primary malignant ovarian germ cell tumour and by normalization of serum tumour markers
, either during or after chemotherapy.1,2 Incidence of GTS is 12% after ovarian germ cell tumours.3,4 There are one hundred one cases of ovarian GTS from literature published between 1977 and 2015.5 Reason for occurrence of GTS is not exactly known but hypothetically there are two major inferences of GTS formation that is chemotherapy transforms malignant cells into "benign" teratomatous elements and chemotherapy can only destroy malignant cells leaving chemoresistant teratoma behind.4,6
The study, which is published in The Journal of the National Cancer Institute, also shows that the higher risk of death over a span of 25 years is independent of other known tumour markers
and also holds true for Luminal A breast cancer, a subtype with a generally good prognosis.
, such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA19-9, and CA125, are routinely evaluated in patients with suspected teratomas.
Serum tumour markers
as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in Libyan breast cancer.
Venous blood samples were taken preoperatively to examine CA 125 and HE4 tumour markers
. These blood samples were centrifuged for 10 minutes at 3500 rpm, and then serums were separated and kept frozen at -80 [degrees]C until the tumour markers
Tabak, "Serum tumour markers
in renal failure," International Urology and Nephrology, vol.
Guidelines have been published by different cancer societies and groups, such as American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO), and European Group on Tumour Markers
(EGTM), with recommendations regarding clinical applications of available markers for gastrointestinal tumors [1-3].
CA-125, CA 19.9, CEA were normal too.
Biochemical, haematological, hormonal laboratory parameters were all normal and the tumour markers
such as AY-HCG, AFP, CEA, serum catecholamines were negative.
"The sensor - an optical chip - will enable the doctors to identify tumour markers
, whose presence in the body signals the emergence and growth of cancerous tumours," said researchers at the Moscow Institute of Physics And Technology.
, including endothelial (CD31, CD34, factor VIII-related antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor) or mesenchymal (vimentin) markers, have previously been reported as positive in capillary hemangioma of the testis.