tumour markers

tumour markers

Substances in the blood or urine that indicate, often by abnormal levels, the presence of a malignant tumour in the body. They include proteins such as thyroglobulin and immunoglobulins; glycoproteins such as the prostate-specific antigen (PSI) and CA-125; hormonal peptides such as beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin and adrenocorticotrophic hormone; enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase and prostatic acid phosphatase; tumour-associated carbohydrate antigens; neuromediators such as catecholamines; oncogenes; oncofetal antigens such as alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen; and cytogenic markers such as the Philadelphia chromosome.
References in periodicals archive ?
GTS is chemotherapeutic retro-conversion characterized by an increase in metastatic mass after complete eradication of a primary malignant ovarian germ cell tumour and by normalization of serum tumour markers, either during or after chemotherapy.1,2 Incidence of GTS is 12% after ovarian germ cell tumours.3,4 There are one hundred one cases of ovarian GTS from literature published between 1977 and 2015.5 Reason for occurrence of GTS is not exactly known but hypothetically there are two major inferences of GTS formation that is chemotherapy transforms malignant cells into "benign" teratomatous elements and chemotherapy can only destroy malignant cells leaving chemoresistant teratoma behind.4,6
The study, which is published in The Journal of the National Cancer Institute, also shows that the higher risk of death over a span of 25 years is independent of other known tumour markers and also holds true for Luminal A breast cancer, a subtype with a generally good prognosis.
Tumour markers, such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA19-9, and CA125, are routinely evaluated in patients with suspected teratomas.
Venous blood samples were taken preoperatively to examine CA 125 and HE4 tumour markers. These blood samples were centrifuged for 10 minutes at 3500 rpm, and then serums were separated and kept frozen at -80 [degrees]C until the tumour markers were studied.
Tabak, "Serum tumour markers in renal failure," International Urology and Nephrology, vol.
Guidelines have been published by different cancer societies and groups, such as American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO), and European Group on Tumour Markers (EGTM), with recommendations regarding clinical applications of available markers for gastrointestinal tumors [1-3].
Tumour markers CA-125, CA 19.9, CEA were normal too.
Biochemical, haematological, hormonal laboratory parameters were all normal and the tumour markers such as AY-HCG, AFP, CEA, serum catecholamines were negative.
"The sensor - an optical chip - will enable the doctors to identify tumour markers, whose presence in the body signals the emergence and growth of cancerous tumours," said researchers at the Moscow Institute of Physics And Technology.
Tumour markers, including endothelial (CD31, CD34, factor VIII-related antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor) or mesenchymal (vimentin) markers, have previously been reported as positive in capillary hemangioma of the testis.

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