(d) Synaptophysin 10x showed a carcinoid tumorlet
sized approximately 2.5-3 mm.
One suggested hypothesis is an exfoliation from the lung primary, intravasation into the circulation, stasis in a blood vessel followed by the extravasation and invasion into the recipient tissue bed and subsequent proliferation into a tumorlet
The model simulations were performed for a tumorlet
treated with a standard RT regime of 2 Gy/fx (5 fx/week).
A mechanism has been described, in which primary linear proliferation is followed by aggregation of NE cells and the creation of tumorlet
lesions, which seems to be the closest to further carcinogenesis [5, 8, 14].
. All the tumorlets
were [p53.sup.-] and [KLF4.sup.+].
These include epithelioid leiomyoma, low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma with sex-cord elements, endometrioid carcinoma with sex-cordlike features, plexiform tumorlet
, vascular plexiform leiomyoma, and metastatic ovarian sex-cord stromal tumors.
The infundibulum, in up to 17% of autopsies, contains clinically insignificant clusters or nodules of granular cells described as tumorlets or tumorettes. Granular cell tumors (GCTs) presumably arise from enlargement of tumorlets
. However, the histogenesis of these tumors is controversial, evident by various terms in the literature that have attempted to describe GCT, including choristoma, tumorlet
, myoblastoma, and pituicytoma.
One reported case occurred in a background of necrotizing bronchiolitis and acute and organizing pneumonia with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and multiple tumorlets
Minute gastric sclerosing stromal tumors (GIST tumorlets
) are common in adults and frequently show c-KIT mutations.
"Cushing's syndrome caused by corticotropin secretions by pulmonary tumorlets
Though others had noted these small lesions (tumorlets
) in the bowel wall, Obern-dorfer noted from his autopsy work that they were often multiple, had less gland formation than adenocarcinomas, and initially appeared to be harmless (reviewed in Kloppel et al (1)).
Provided they are not present at the margins, the presence of other neoplastic processes (eg, tumorlets
, minute meningothelial nodules, neuroendocrine hyperplasia, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, squamous dysplasia) does not impact tumor staging.