Indeed, loss of SMARCB1, a subunit of the complex, is the unique genetic alteration which drives rhabdoid tumors and is associated with blocking of the differentiation, reprogramming towards an oncogenic transcriptional program and activation of tumorigenic
(73) However, even when gangliosides are completely removed from malignantly transformed cells, the cells still possess tumorigenic
Murudkar et al., "hnRNP L regulates the tumorigenic
capacity of lung cancer xenografts in mice via caspase-9 pre-mRNA processing," Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.
Thus, similar to models of normal tissue stem cells, once a CSC has generated a daughter that has exited the CSC state, the latter should become committed to a non-CSC, poorly tumorigenic
state and, quite possibly, to spawn more differentiated, possibly post-mitotic descendants.
Vertical growth phase has been defined as "tumorigenic
" growth when the dermal nests are larger than any nest in the junctional component of the lesion or when mitotic figures can be identified within the dermal melanocytes.
Overexpression of EMT-associated transcription factors Snail, Twist, or FOXC2 not only enables phenotypic transformation of breast cancer cells but also enhances tumor glomus formation, soft agar clonality, and tumorigenic
potential and enables them to obtain CD44high/CD24low (cancerous CSCs and markers for mammary epithelial stem cells) antigen phenotype [82, 83].
In mouse models of mammary cancer, different driver mutations are tumorigenic
; for example, Wnt1-driven breast cancers are enriched with CD61 for CSC activity in mice, whereas mice with Neu/ErbB2-driven breast cancers do not possess stem cell activity (8).
Wu et al., "Hypoxia-inducible factors regulate tumorigenic
capacity of glioma stem cells," Cancer Cell, vol.
In summary, both genistein and lycopene, at very low, dietarily relevant concentrations can potentially mitigate tumorigenic
processes via promoter methylation modulation of gene expression.
For instance, CD44, a stem cell surface marker, is highly expressed in a tumorigenic
subpopulation of pancreatic cancer cells (Li et al.
potential of ECM metalloproteinase inducer.
vertical growth phase (VGP), when present, forms a mass that may histologically assume a more or less circular shape and may thus appear "radial." Therefore, some histopathologists have referred to the RGP as the "horizontal growth phase." In our practice, however, we continue to use the originally defined term radial growth phase.