Therefore, although there is a risk of tumor seeding
, EUS-FNA should be considered an important modality for pathological diagnoses for small pancreatic masses.
Last but not the least, tumor seeding
due to saline injection was cautiously considered.
Using a laparoscopic stapler may result in positive surgical margin in the bladder; the transvesical laparoscopic approach, while oncologically reliable, has technical difficulties;and the transurethral approach and intussusception carry the risk of tumor seeding
. The long-term follow-up results for robotassisted distal ureterectomy are still insufficient.
To prevent tumor seeding
, the needle track is coagulated during the withdrawal of the antenna.
FNA can lead to tumor seeding
and potentially cause parathyromatosis.
Furthermore, EFTR required the creation of a pseudoperforation, which can increase the risk of intraperitoneal tumor seeding
when the pseudocapsule is not intact.
Furthermore, endoscopic biopsy might also result in tumor seeding
. Therefore, it is difficult to discriminate the two diseases by using endoscopic biopsy for its' own limitations; in this current study, we did not adopt the endoscopic biopsy.
However, there is a theoretical risk of tumor seeding
along the biopsy tract following transthoracic procedures, and indeed there is at least one such case report for SFT (29).
HCCs seem to be particularly prone to tumor seeding
after biopsy with an incidence of 2% to 5% [28, 29].
Vitagliano, "Port site metastasis and tumor seeding
in oncologic laparoscopic urology," Urology, vol.
The result was reported as two tumor nodules in the liver, the larger one of 9.2 cm in size and the smaller one of 0.4 cm in size with tumor seeding
of 11.5 cm in the anterior abdominal wall, and a clean surgical border (Fig.3).
The biggest limitation of subconjunctival chemotherapy is ineffective control of subretinal tumor seeding
. Side effects include periorbital edema and cellulitis, orbital adipose tissue atrophy, fibrosis of extraocular muscles and Tenon's capsule, and subsequent limitations to ocular motility.