The tumor antigens
must be presented to the body in a different form, or in a different way, to enlist the patient's own immune system in fighting the cancer.
Its novel, proprietary products are intended to improve both the direct anti-tumor effects of selective virus replication and the potency of the immune response to the tumor antigens
While cancer vaccines create killer (CD8+) T cell immune responses against tumor antigens
, oncolytic viruses leverage defective pathways in tumors to selectively replicate in and destroy cancer cells.
Receptors on the surface of T-cells recognize tumor antigens
in the form of small peptides and provide a selective pathway for targeted cancer therapies.
Creation of a pure population of T cells, based on targeted screening for specific features, such as affinity to tumor antigens
and anti-tumor activity, enables isolation of a single population of TCRs, which can then be sequenced.
The registered numbers of clinical trials increase annually, and a range of tumor antigens
, including CEA, mesothelin, HER2, and GD2, are being targeted for various solid tumors.
Although their presentations vary, syndromes occur when tumor antigens
exhibit cross-reactivity to similar antigens expressed by these systems.
have been identified for some cancers.
According to this model, the expectation was that tumor antigens
recognized by the lymphocytes infiltrating the tumors should be derived from oncogenic viruses or from somatically mutated genes generated during the processes of carcinogenesis.
Advaxis is developing attenuated live Lm vaccines that deliver engineered tumor antigens
, which stimulate multiple simultaneous immunological mechanisms to fight cancer.
These nine articles describe some of the work being done to differentiate markers and use their presence to detect and treat a range of cancers, addressing the characterization of breast cancer subtypes in a large retrospective study, intraocular lymphoma markers, polymorphisms in genes associated with certain T-cell lymphomas, tumor antigens
that are markers of minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia, thyroid tumor markers, activity and expression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV and cathepsin H in human cutaneous melanoma compared to other common cancers, melanoma inhibitory activity as a serological marker in metastic melanoma, and the promise (or myth) of the tumor necrosis factor alpha receptors p55 and p75 in ovarian cancer detection.
The discovery of a central role for HMGB1 and TLR2 in overcoming immune ignorance to brain tumor antigens
provides a new therapeutic approach in the fight against brain tumors.