Foreline: The tubulation
between the outlet fitting of a momentum transfer high-vacuum pump and the backing pump supporting it.
If you know the pumping speed at the chamber from calculations based on the speed of the pump and conductance of the connecting tubulation
, a quick calculation can be made for Q, or gas load.
Implosion is a risk in high-vacuum systems with glass windows, tubulation
, and glass envelope gauges.
The expected gas flow through the tubulation
is a function of both the diameter and length of the tubulation
and is referred to as conductance.
For example, the conductance of the tubulation
between the chamber and pump will often be the controlling factor in pumping speed.
A glass-envelope gauge with 1-in tubulation
is recommended for applications requiring pressure measurements down to [10.
fortunei in the systems constructed by humans in the Mercosul region are similar to those described for Dreissena polymorpha, a species that originally appears in the Caspian Sea in North America, generating an annual cost of U$ 5 billions to clean tubulations
that have been taken over by the invasor species (Khalanski, 1997; Darrigran and Damborenea, 2005).