There are four major categories of cutaneous tuberculosis: (1) inoculation from an exogenous source (primary inoculation tuberculosis, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis); (2) endogenous cutaneous spread contiguously or by auto-inoculation (scrofuloderma, tuberculosis cutis
oroficialis); (3) hematogenous spread to the skin (lupus vulgaris, acute miliary tuberculosis, and tuberculosis ulcer, gumma, or abscess); (4) tuberculids (erythema induratum [Bazin's disease], papulonecrotic tuberculids, and lichen scrofulosorum).
Scrofuloderma was the most common tuberculosis cutis seen in 35 (62%) patients followed by lupus vulgaris warty tuberculosis and tuberculids.
Conclusion Scrofuloderma is the most common clinical presentation of tuberculosis cutis seen in our setting followed by lupus vulgaris tuberculosis verrucosa cutis and tuberculids.
Scrofuloderma has been reported to be the commonest form from UK6 and lupus vulgaris from South Africa.7 In India scrofuloderma had the highest frequency in children while lupus vulgaris in adults.89 In Pakistan scrofuloderma has been reported to be the most common form (64.9%).10 Studies carried out in our country reveal a limited data regarding the frequency of different clinical presentations of tuberculosis cutis.10
The study will be helpful towards planning more strategies for awareness about tuberculosis cutis for health care providers leading to early diagnosis and preventing lethal complications.
Scrofuloderma was the most common tuberculosis cutis seen in 35 (62%) patients followed by lupus vulgaris 11 (19%) warty tuberculosis 6 (10%) and tuberculids in 5 (9%).
Table 3 reveals gender wise frequency of tuberculosis cutis in our study.
Tuberculosis cutis has also been reported from our neighbor country India.3 Chin et al.13 have reported a considerable drop in its frequency in Hong Kong where it was a chronic problem.
The findings in our study are comparable with international studies.17 Pandhi et al.18 have also reported the highest frequency of tuberculosis cutis in young subjects from neighbor country India.