trypanosomiasis

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trypanosomiasis

 [tri-pan″o-so-mi´ah-sis]
infection with trypanosomes.
African trypanosomiasis an often fatal disease of Africa caused by Trypanosoma gambiense or T. rhodesiense and involving the central nervous system. The parasites are transmitted to human beings from cattle or other animals by the bite of the tsetse fly. Usually the first symptom is inflammation at the site of the bite, appearing within 48 hours. Within several weeks the parasites invade the blood and lymph, and eventually they attack the central nervous system. Characteristic symptoms include intermittent fever, rapid heartbeat, and enlargement of the lymph nodes and spleen. In the advanced stage of the disease there are personality changes, apathy, sleepiness, disturbances of speech and gait, and severe emaciation.



Pharmacologic treatment should begin as soon as possible and is based on lab results and patient symptoms. suramin, pentamidine isethionate, and melarsoprol are the most common medications used. Pentamidine isethionate or suramin may be injected to remove parasites from the blood or lymph nodes before onset of disease, but the most effective preventive measure is eradication of the tsetse fly.
American trypanosomiasis (South American trypanosomiasis) a form found from the southern United States south into South America, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi; it is transmitted to humans from wild animals by means of the feces of a blood-sucking bug. The parasites multiply around the points of entry before entering the blood and eventually attacking the heart, brain, and other tissues. Called also Chagas' disease.



The acute form often attacks children. Early symptoms include swelling of the eyelids and the development of a hard, red, painful nodule on the skin. Enlargement of the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen occurs, along with inflammation of the heart muscle, psychic changes, and general debility. In adults the chronic form often resembles heart disease.

The control strategy suggested by the World Health Organization is to interrupt transmission of the disease by the vectors and to systematically screen blood donors. Preventive measures, such as the wearing of protective clothing and the use of insecticides, are of primary importance. Medication with antiprotozoal agents is usually effective when administered during the acute stage of infection.

try·pan·o·so·mi·a·sis

(tri-pan'ō-sō-mī'ă-sis, trip'ă-nō-),
Any disease caused by a trypanosome.
Synonym(s): trypanosomosis

trypanosomiasis

/try·pano·so·mi·a·sis/ (tri-pan″o-so-mi´ah-sis) infection with trypanosomes.
African trypanosomiasis  human trypanosomiasis endemic in areas of tropical Africa, due to infection with Trypanosoma gambiense (Gambian t.) or T. rhodesiense (Rhodesian t.); it is transmitted by the bite of species of Glossina (tsetse flies) and in advanced stage attacks the central nervous system, resulting in meningoencephalitis that leads to lethargy, tremors, convulsions, and eventually coma and death.
South American trypanosomiasis  Chagas' disease.

trypanosomiasis

(trĭ-păn′ə-sō-mī′ə-sĭs)
n. pl. trypanosomia·ses (-sēz′)
Infection with or disease caused by trypanosomes.

trypanosomiasis

[trip′ənō′sōmī′əsis]
Etymology: Gk, trypanon + soma + osis, condition
an infection by an organism of the Trypanosoma genus. Kinds of trypanosomiasis are African trypanosomiasis and Chagas' disease. Also called trypanosomal infection.

trypanosomiasis

(1) South American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease). 
(2) African trypanosomiasis: 
• West African—chronic or Gambian trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. 
• East African—acute or Rhodesian trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodinense.

trypanosomiasis

See American trypanosomiasis.

try·pan·o·so·mi·a·sis

(trī-pan'ō-sŏ-mī'ă-sis)
Any disease caused by a trypanosome.
Synonym(s): trypanosomosis.

trypanosomiasis

In Africa, a disease of the nervous system caused by infection with the single-celled parasite Trypanosoma brucei . Commonly known as ‘sleeping sickness’ African trypanosomiasis features extensive brain inflammation with headache, loss of concentration, lassitude, a vacant expression, drooping eyelids and finally loss of all motivation so that the affected person may starve to death. Unless treated, the condition ends in seizures, coma and death. See also TSETSE FLY and CHAGAS DISEASE (South American trypanosomiasis).

Gambia,

country in West Africa, bordering North Atlantic Ocean and Senegal.
Gambian sleeping sickness - caused by parasite Trypanosoma brucei and transmitted through bite of an infected tsetse fly. Synonym(s): trypanosomiasis

trypanosomiasis

clinically a nondescript disease which may be peracute, acute or chronic. Called also nagana, mal de caderas and others. See also dourine, surra. The diagnosis is based on a positive blood smear and the presence of an insect vector, often a tsetse fly, or a history of mating in the case of dourine.

American trypanosomiasis
a disease of humans caused by infection with Trypanosoma cruzi.
References in periodicals archive ?
C'est en 1901, que le Capitaine Von Stein signale, pour la premiere fois, un foyer de trypanosomiase sur le cours du Nyong, dans 1'Est du territoire.
21) Fort de ces resultats, Jojot notait que la situation economique du Cameroun plus favorable que celle de l'AEF permettait d'esperer que chez les populations mieux nourries, les organismes resisteraient mieux et triompheraient plus vite de la trypanosomiase ; la mortalite chez les personnes traitees au debut de la maladie etait faible, signe favorable pour le succes de la campagne que le Dr E.
24) Cette meme annee, alors que l'administration semblait manifester son desir d'arriver a controler l'epidemie, au cours de leurs activites de prospections, Eugene Jamot et son equipe entrent dans la subdivision de Yaounde et depistent plusieurs cas de trypanosomiase << jusqu'aux portes meme de la ville.
Quoiqu'en dise ce praticien, la lutte contre la trypanosomiase ne doit pas necessairement faire abstraction de tous les facteurs non strictement medicaux qui caracterisent l'action de la Puissance mandataire au Cameroun.
Fonde en 1907 par Alphonse Laveran, la Societe de Pathologie Exotique s'etait des sa creation interessee a la trypanosomiase et a son contrOle dans les colonies francaises.
Les critiques allemandes quant a la lutte contre la trypanosomiase, etaient de deux ordres : les Allemands accusaient la France << d'avoir laisse la maladie se propager au Cameroun,>> d'avoir recours, faute de personnel, << au moyen desespere du service medical volant, >> d'appliquer une methode de traitement inefficace, enfin de faire de la prophylaxie par des infirmiers inexperimentes et hors de tout controle medical.
gt;> (59) Quant au reproche qualifie d'<< injustifie >> d'avoir laisse le mal se repandre, il notera que meme du temps des Allemands, de nombreux foyers de trypanosomiase existaient au Cameroun.
Afrique Medecine et sante Entretien avec Docteur Simon Van Nieuwenhove, expert international de la trypanosomiase.
Programme National de Lutte contre la Trypanosomiase Humaine Africaine, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; ([dagger]) Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; ([double dagger]) Fonds Medical Tropical, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; ([section]) Cooperation Technique Beige, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; ([paragraph]) Institute of Development Policy and Management, Antwerp, Belgium; and (#) World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland