Comparative pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin
, and moxifloxacin after single oral administration in healthy volunteers.
NorA has more affinity to hydrophilic fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, enoxacin) than hydrophobic compounds(sparfloxacin, trovafloxacin
, levofloxacin) (7).
([section]) Per 10% increase in fluoroquinolone prescribing during the previous year; includes ciprofloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and trovafloxacin
Novel a1-adrenoceptor antagonism by the fluroquinolone antibiotic trovafloxacin
. Eur J Pharmacol 2016 15;791:179-84.
Phenotypic resistance of staphylococcus aureus, selected enterobacteriaceae, and pseudomonas aeruginosa after single and multiple in vitro exposures to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and trovafloxacin
. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001;45(3):883-92.
John, "Topoisomerase sequences of coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin or trovafloxacin
," Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.
 presented [c.sub.i]/[c.sub.out] gradient for trovafloxacin
(TRV) to be about 9 for extracellular concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 25 ug/mL.
Doern, "Comparative bactericidal activities of ciprofloxacin, clinafloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and trovafloxacin
against Streptococcus pneumoniae in a dynamic in vitro model," Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.
A number of drugs such as troglitazone, trovafloxacin
and bromfenac (oral formulation) were withdrawn from the market due to the formation of reactive hepatotoxic metabolites (12) and other drugs that are still on the market such as acetaminophen and amiodarone, etc., can cause hepatotoxicity when used at high doses (12).
Another example is the broad-spectrum antibiotic trovafloxacin
, which was introduced in 1997 and soon became Pfizer's top seller.
Prediction of the effects of inoculum size on the antimicrobial action of trovafloxacin
and ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichiacoli in an in vitro dynamic model.
Other fluoroquinolones such as gemifloxacin, sparfloxacin, grepafloxacin, trovafloxacin
, and garenoxacin have been shown to be effective against M.