troposphere

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troposphere

the lowest region of the Earth's atmosphere, from the Earth's surface to 10 km in altitude.
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The synergy between active-based lidar profiling and operational radiosonde profiling of local thermodynamic properties at Fairbanks helps distinguish the tropospheric nature of the clouds, as compared with polar stratospheric clouds for which they could have been confused at such heights during the subarctic winter.
The Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible model also calculates the expected disinfecting power of UV light in a particular body of water based on the amount of dissolved organic matter and other characteristics.
Tropospheric winds from northeastern China carry the etiologic agent of Kawasaki disease from its source to Japan.
Black carbon and tropospheric ozone pollution are traditional air pollutants, which together kill nearly seven million people a year and destroy hundreds of millions of tons of food crops.
Since the wet tropospheric delay a priori value precise prediction is currently unachievable, in most of the applications its residual is estimated as an additional parameter.
The US scientists, led by Dr Benjamin Santer, from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, wrote in the journal Nature Geoscience: "We show that climate model simulations without the effects of early 21st century volcanic eruptions overestimate the tropospheric warming observed since 1998.
2012) and usually estimated in GPS routine analyses, more recently together with its horizontal gradients of tropospheric path delay to account for its isotropic variations, along with the equation solving residual observables containing small atmospheric contributions (Hirahara, 2000; Champollion et al.
Increased tropospheric ozone concentrations are currently a matter of great concern since background ozone concentrations have more than doubled during the last decades (STAEHELIN et al.
In spite of progress since the adoption of the first EU laws on air pollution and air quality in the 1980s, around 90% of European city dwellers are still exposed to high levels of pollution from particulate matter and tropospheric ozone.
Scientists believe Saturn's atmosphere is a layered sandwich of sorts, with a deck of water clouds at the bottom, ammonia hydrosulfide clouds in the middle, and ammonia clouds near the top, just below an upper tropospheric haze of unknown composition that obscures almost everything.
Such radicals may contribute to a variety of atmospheric processes, such as the formation of tropospheric ozone or NOx.