troposphere

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troposphere

the lowest region of the Earth's atmosphere, from the Earth's surface to 10 km in altitude.
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In looking toward the future, we expect these observations will be used to more fully characterize chemical transport simulations that can be used to evaluate future space-based geostationary air quality instruments, such as NASA's Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) and the Korean Space Agency's Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS), and current polar-orbiting satellites, such as the European Space Agency (ESA)'s Sentinel-5 Precursor Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI).
A series of sun-synchronous satellites were launched with spectrometers, which allowed scientists to observe the global distribution of several important tropospheric trace gases including N[O.sub.2], S[O.sub.2], and [O.sub.3].
The Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible model also calculates the expected disinfecting power of UV light in a particular body of water based on the amount of dissolved organic matter and other characteristics.
Tropospheric winds from northeastern China carry the etiologic agent of Kawasaki disease from its source to Japan.
One of the main factors, that limit the accuracy of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is represented by tropospheric refraction, among other sources of errors, like the ionospheric refraction, multipath and signal obstruction.
These include black carbon or soot (the primary component of particulate matter that is also a major and growing health concern); hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), used most commonly in refrigeration; and methane and tropospheric (or ground-level) ozone.
Black carbon and tropospheric ozone pollution are traditional air pollutants, which together kill nearly 7mn people a year and destroy hundreds of millions of tonnes of food crops.
The paper, titled "Upper Tropospheric Moistening in response to Anthropogenic Warming," was published in the July 28th, 2014 Early Addition on-line of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).
Operational forecasts for the onset of the monsoon are issued on the basis of six indicators -- minimum temperature over northwest India, pre- monsoon rainfall peak over the southern peninsula, outgoing long- wave radiation over South China Sea, lower tropospheric zonal wind over southeast Indian Ocean, upper tropospheric zonal wind over east equatorial Indian Ocean and outgoing long- wave radiation over southwest Pacific region.
The US scientists, led by Dr Benjamin Santer, from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, wrote in the journal Nature Geoscience: "We show that climate model simulations without the effects of early 21st century volcanic eruptions overestimate the tropospheric warming observed since 1998.