troposphere


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troposphere

the lowest region of the Earth's atmosphere, from the Earth's surface to 10 km in altitude.
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2012, Near real-time estimation of water vapour in the troposphere using ground GNSS and the meteorological data.
The troposphere is the lower part of the atmosphere, where all the weather happens.
We started to measure pollutants that get transported from continent to continent in the upper troposphere," says Walker.
Several campaigns and studies in the past years have already proven that tomography can yield a good spatial and temporal representation of the troposphere horizontal and vertical structures, providing better information for quantifying atmospheric phenomena (Flores et al.
Electromagnetic waves propagating through the troposphere are refracted and scattered by variations in the radio refractive index, n which in turn are caused by variation in pressure P(mb), temperature T(K), and water vapour pressure 'e' (mb) according to the formula:
Major disparities are prevalent across the three dimensional atmospheric range as revealed by the synoptic charts for surface levels: the ranges north to south, east to west as well as through the upper air within the troposphere.
The tropopause layer between the troposphere and stratosphere, 8 miles to 11 miles above earth's surface, is the point where water vapor, ozone and other gases enter the stratosphere.
Among their topics are loss and fading associated with troposphere propagation phenomena, frequency plan for a fixed service microwave link, link path engineering, link engineering according to availability and error performance criteria, and link operations and monitoring.
That is why most of the molecules collect close to the Earth's surface in the first atmospheric layer, called the troposphere.
There, the cumulative record of 800 bomb tests pluming the troposphere, fallout carried around the earth, raining down on all of us, children's bones on which was built an argument for test ban treaties, an end to above-ground testing--the never-lived, burned to fragile ash for a phoenix world.
Some specific topics include swarm intelligence for the solution of problems in differential equations, modeling of nitrite adsorption on granular activated carbon using artificial neural networks, and a mathematical model of troposphere water vapor tomography.
Sundogs are caused by sunlight passing through flat, six-sided ice crystals high in the troposphere.