Several factors contribute to the impact of macrophytes in trophic
cascades (Jeppesen et al., 2005), which affect greatly aquatic food webs through physical, chemical and biological mechanisms (Canfield et al., 1984; Carpenter and Lodge, 1986; Dent et al., 2002).
cascades can begin with a predator or an infectious agent.
Various species from multiple trophic
levels such as inorganic nutrient absorber and organic-extractive organisms have been considered as the candidate organisms to be co-cultured with targeted species (Table 1).
Therefore, the study aimed at: 1) estimating the relative contribution of the different basal carbon sources to the diet of primary consumer fish species, and 2) determining the trophic
position of the dominant fishes from each guild (herbivores, detritivores, invertivores and piscivores).
We calculated trophic
position on the basis of %IRI values of the prey species presented in the stomach content.
This report suggests caution in generalizing to other situations with differing arrangements of trophic
levels and food streams.
Effect of soil physical and chemical characteristics on nematode trophic
Further, patterns of variation in metabolic efficiencies between modes (endothermy and ectothermy) have been considered in the context of the trophic
structure of ecological networks (e.g, Riede et al., 2011; Moore and de Ruiter, 2012).
In order to characterize the trophic
groups, a Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA; Legendre & Legendre, 1998) was applied to the matrix of percentage volume of food resources using the Bray-Curtis distance to visualize the distribution of species according to the consumed food resources using the axes with higher eigenvalues.
Nitrogen isotope ratios become enriched at successive trophic
levels, thereby allowing estimates of the consumer's trophic
The analysis is based on a comparison between samples collected at the mouth and on the border of the lake, by examining the abundance of species, the mean sizes or size distributions, as well as more global indicators such as the slope of the size spectrum, trophic
levels, and diversity indices.