Simplified technique for differential staining of inner cell mass and trophectoderm
cells of mouse and bovine blastocysts.
Embryos that reached the blastocyst stage were assessed using Gardner's score based on the degree of expansion, intracellular mass (ICM) and trophectoderm
apposition is regulated by interferon g-induced protein 10 (IP-10) during early implantation.
The newer PGT-A tests the embryos at the blastocyst stage by using biopsy samples from the trophectoderm
(which will form the future placenta); this is expected to spare the inner cell mass ([ICM] which will give rise to the embryo proper) from biopsy-related injury.
The expansion, trophectoderm
(TE), and inner cell mass (ICM) quality of the blastocysts were assessed based on blastocyst parameters, and used to differentiate between 'excellent', 'good', 'average', and 'poor'-quality embryos.
Studies have shown that the inhibition of Oct4 in murine ESCs contributed to their differentiation into trophectoderm
cells while increased expression of Oct4 caused transformation into the primitive endoderm and mesoderm, which may be possibly due to Oct4-mediated downregulation of the CDX2 expression .
Egelhoff, "Keratin 5-Cre-driven excision of nonmuscle myosin IIA in early embryo trophectoderm
leads to placenta defects and embryonic lethality," Developmental Biology, vol.
To examine the quality of blastocysts, their inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm
(TE) cells were separately stained as described previously .
Abbreviations ART - assisted reproductive technology IVF - in vitro fertilization PGD - preimplantation genetic diagnosis PGS - preimplantation genetic screening FISH - fluorescent in situ hybridization DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid PCR - polymerase chain reaction CGH - comparative genomic hybridization TE - trophectoderm
WGA - whole genome amplification ICSI - intracytoplasmic sperm injection ICM - inner cell mass ESHRE PGD Consortium - European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Consortium In in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures, since the birth of Louise Brown in 1978, more than 5,4 million children have been born, and nearly 600.000 ART cycles are performed each year only in Europe .
Discovery and characterization of an epithelial-specific galectin in the endometrium that forms crystals in the trophectoderm
. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.