In human skeletal muscle cells treated with H2O2, the PPARI3 agonist troglitazone
upregulated GPx3 mRNA and protein levels (Chung et al., 2009).
In subjects with diabetes, troglitazone
was found to lower CRP levels in limited number of small studies (van Tits et al., 2005; Chu et al., 2002).
Improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in obese subjects treated with troglitazone
. N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 1188-1193, doi: 10.1056/NEJM199411033311803.
For example, GPR43 levels were significantly increased during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which can be further upregulated by treatment with adipogenic agent such as troglitazone
Efficacy and metabolic effect of metformin and troglitazone
in Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
In addition, human primary preadipocytes require both dexamethasone (glucocorticoid agonist) and troglitazone
(PPARG agonist) to induce differentiation (Janderova et al.
Similarly, other molecules such as Troglitazone
(17) and Rivoglitazone (18) also possess very short L2 but were not successful drugs due to their toxicities .
Besides that, antidiabetic drugs such as troglitazone
and rosiglitazone have also been reported to enhance preadipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake in adipocyte [35, 36].
Based on these, there are two ways to correct hyperglycemia: one is increasing sensitivity of target organs and tissues to insulin and another is stimulating insulin secretion, corresponding to the clinical commonly used first-line drugs thiazolidinediones of which representative drug is troglitazone
and sulfonylureas, respectively.
They include rosiglitazone (RSG), troglitazone
(TG) in combination with cyanidin, and arylidenethiazolidinedione.
CYP2C8 mediates the modification of several anticancer, antidiabetic, and antimalarial drugs, including paclitaxel, troglitazone
, and amodiaquine .