Hybrids initially developed faster than pure-strain larvae during the trochophore
and veliger stages, but developmental differences evened out with the onset of metamorphosis.
5hr Blastula 3-5hr Gastrula Trochophore
16-18hr -- -- D-shaped 63-77 D1-5 64-84 26hr Umbo 74-251 D5-12 90-110 -- Eye-spot 144-267 D 12-16 -- -- Pediveliger 195-350 D12-16 274 -- Spat 490> D16> -- -- Stage Pernaviridis  Ensisarcuatus  Size Time Size Time ([micro]m) ([micro]m) 1st pb 50-60 20m 60 15m 2nd pb 2 to 32-cell 40m 6h Morula 60 >6hr Blastula 6-12h Gastrula 16h Trochophore
-- -- -- 19h D-shaped 60-70 24hr 109 20-24 Umbo 90-260 D7 177 D7 Eye-spot 220-270 D13 -- -- Pediveliger 280-380 D16 283 D14 Spat 400-490 >D21 378 D20 Stage Placuna placenta  Size Time ([micro]m) 1st pb 50-70 15m 2nd pb 20m 2 to 32-cell 155m Morula 285 Blastula 295 Gastrula 305 Trochophore
341 D-shaped 80 18 Umbo 140 D4 Eye-spot -- -- Pediveliger 215 D7 Spat 340 D10
Ten ml of algae solution in exponential phase, from a 21 mass culture, were added every three days to the aquarium containing 200 trochophore
Figure 1 shows the sequence of the embryogenic states of Striostrea prismatica, ending in the trochophore
and early D larval states.
2] across the different stages (embryonic, trochophore
larvae, veliger larvae, and settling larvae) are attributable to differences in activity level (Alter et al.
Suspension feeding by marine invertebrate larvae: clearance of particles by ciliated bands of a rotifer, pluteus, and trochophore
A typical bivalve usually discharges gametes into the water and externally fertilized eggs develop into free-swimming trochophore
, then veliger larvae (Barnes 1968).
larvae accounted for 54% of embryos at 16 h postfertilization, and 98% of larvae at 20 h postfertilization.
We did not witness whether the blastopore closed completely before the opening of the stomadaeum at the trochophore
Mortalities during the initial growth stage from fertilized egg to the hatch out of trochophore
larvae (Stage 14) varied from 43% to 86%, with no correlation to temperature.
Oxygen consumption rate of fertilized eggs and larvae in the trochophore
, mid- veliger, and early benthic veliger stages were measured at densities from 100 to 2,400 individuals/ml, in light and dark conditions and oxygen levels of 100%-0% air saturation (% [O.
Willan also briefly mentioned the occurrence of a trochophore
stage during embryonic development, something that we never observed during this study.