The locust life cycle is univoltine in cool temperate regions, bivoltine or trivoltine
in temperate regions, and multivoltine, with more than 3 generations per year, in subtropical and tropical regions (Verdier 1972, Tanaka 1994a, b, Shimizu et al.
Strongly female-biased sex allocation in a trivoltine
population of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) opacum Brethes (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae).
Languria mozardi is univoltine in the Eastern United States and trivoltine
in the South-western United States (Wildermuth & Gates 1920).
In the warmer climate they were trivoltine
, whereas in the cooler one they were only bivoltine.
Along the central Atlantic coast both planthoppers are trivoltine
and adults are absent from the marsh from November through March (Denno et al.
In warmer locations in Georgia and South Carolina it is probably trivoltine
pentagona is trivoltine
with peaks of adult abundance in June, August, and October (Hanks and Denno 1993a).