Gauging the cross-sectional area occupied by the gonad is especially important for staging maturation in triploids
, which was performed in accordance with Allen and Downing (1990).
Comparison of means by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test were monthly performed in shell biometrics, BW and CI of diploids and triploids
at each site.
For example diploid-tetraploid crosses often produce sterile triploids
(Levin, 1975; Ramsey and Schemske, 1998; Sutherland and Galloway, 2016).
Among the studied control specimens of elite clones, one clone (PtV22) was also diploid (Figure 6) while clones Line#4 and Understory-3 were shown to be mixoploid (Figure 7), represented by diploid 2n = 38 and triploid
(2n = 3x = 57) cells found in different proportions (Table 1).
[20.] Pala I, Coelho MM, Schartl M (2008)Dosage compensation by gene-copy silencing in a triploid
a seed with a triploid
embryo but inviable endosperm.
During pollination evaluation, it was noted that in diploids the pollen grains deposited on the stigma emitted and developed pollen tubes faster than in triploids
. Four hours after pollination, pollen grains were not visible on the stigma anymore, which indicates that germination was complete.
Crosses of Diploid x tetraploid cultivars, triploid
x tetraploid cultivars and tetraploid x tetraploid cultivars can result in full compatibility, incompatibility, or different degrees of semicompatibility, because diploid pollen can have more than one S-allele.
Economically beneficial characteristics of polyploidy have led to triploid
organisms being used in a wide range of farming systems, notably in bivalve mollusks (Beaumont and Fair-brother, 1991; Nell, 2002; Piferrer et al., 2009).
monodon (62.9% for forward library and 46.5% for reverse library)  and the SSH library between triploid
and diploid shrimp of F.
Florida helped lead the way with research on grass carp food habits and with creating triploid
(functionally sterile) grass carp.
The averages and standard deviation of length and weight for diploids were 8.7 [+ or -] 0.8 cm and 20.3 [+ or -] 1.2 g, and for triploids
8.5 [+ or -] 1.3 cm and 19.2 [+ or -] 1.4 g.