trihexyphenidyl


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Related to trihexyphenidyl: Trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride

trihexyphenidyl

 [tri-hek″se-fen´ĭ-dil]
an antidyskinetic used as the hydrochloride salt in the treatment of parkinsonism and for the control of drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions (except tardive dyskinesia); administered orally.

trihexyphenidyl

(trye-hex-ee-fen-i-dill) ,

Artane

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: antiparkinson agents
Pharmacologic: anticholinergics
Pregnancy Category: C

Indications

Adjunct in the management of parkinsonian syndrome of many causes, including drug-induced parkinsonism.

Action

Inhibits the action of acetylcholine, resulting in:
  • Decreased sweating and salivation,
  • Mydriasis (pupillary dilation),
  • Increased heart rate.
Also has spasmolytic action on smooth muscle.
Inhibits cerebral motor centers and blocks efferent impulses.

Therapeutic effects

Diminished signs and symptoms of parkinsonian syndrome (tremors, rigidity).

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Well absorbed following oral administration.
Distribution: Unknown.
Metabolism and Excretion: Excreted mostly in urine.
Half-life: 3.7 hr.

Time/action profile (antiparkinson effects)

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
PO1 hr2–3 hr6–12 hr

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity; Angle-closure glaucoma; Acute hemorrhage; Tachycardia secondary to cardiac insufficiency; Thyrotoxicosis; Known alcohol intolerance (elixir only).
Use Cautiously in: Geriatric / Pediatric: ↑ risk of adverse reactions; Intestinal obstruction or infection; Prostatic hyperplasia; Chronic renal, hepatic, pulmonary, or cardiac disease; Obstetric / Lactation / Pediatric: Safety not established.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • dizziness (most frequent)
  • nervousness (most frequent)
  • confusion
  • drowsiness
  • headache
  • psychoses
  • weakness

Ear, Eye, Nose, Throat

  • blurred vision (most frequent)
  • mydriasis (most frequent)

Cardiovascular

  • orthostatic hypotension
  • tachycardia

Gastrointestinal

  • dry mouth (most frequent)
  • nausea (most frequent)
  • constipation
  • vomiting

Genitourinary

  • urinary hesitancy
  • urinary retention

Dermatologic

  • decreased sweating

Interactions

Drug-Drug interaction

Additive anticholinergic effects with other drugs having anticholinergic properties, including phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, quinidine, and disopyramide.May ↑ the efficacy of levodopa but may ↑ the risk of psychoses.Additive CNS depression with other CNS depressants, including alcohol, antihistamines, opioids, and sedative/hypnotics.Anticholinergics may alter the absorption of other orally administered drugs by slowing motility of the GI tract.Antacids may ↓ absorption.↑ anticholinergic effects with angel’s trumpet and jimson weed and scopolia.

Route/Dosage

Oral (Adults) 1–2 mg/day initially; ↑ by 2 mg q 3–5 days. Usual maintenance dose is 6–10 mg/day in 3 divided doses (up to 15 mg/day).

Availability (generic available)

Tablets: 2 mg, 5 mg
Elixirlime-mint flavor: 2 mg/5 mL

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Assess parkinsonian and extrapyramidal symptoms (restlessness or desire to keep moving, rigidity, tremors, pill rolling, mask-like face, shuffling gait, muscle spasms, twisting motions, difficulty speaking or swallowing, loss of balance control) prior to and throughout therapy.
  • Monitor intake and output ratios and assess patient for urinary retention (dysuria, distended abdomen, infrequent voiding of small amounts, overflow incontinence).
  • Patients with mental illness are at risk of developing exaggerated symptoms of their disorder during early therapy with this medication. Withhold drug and report significant behavioral changes.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Impaired physical mobility (Indications)
Risk for injury (Indications)
Deficient knowledge, related to medication regimen (Patient/Family Teaching)

Implementation

  • Oral: Usually administered after meals. May be administered before meals if patient suffers from dry mouth or with meals if gastric distress is a problem. Use calibrated measuring device to ensure accurate dose of elixir.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Instruct patient to take this drug exactly as directed. If a dose is missed, take as soon as remembered, unless next scheduled dose is within 2 hr; do not double doses.
  • Medication should be tapered gradually when discontinuing or a withdrawal reaction may occur (anxiety, tachycardia, insomnia, return of parkinsonian or extrapyramidal symptoms).
  • May cause drowsiness or dizziness. Advise patient to avoid driving or other activities that require alertness until response to medication is known.
  • Caution patient to change positions slowly to minimize orthostatic hypotension.
  • Instruct patient that frequent rinsing of mouth, good oral hygiene, and sugarless gum or candy may decrease dry mouth. Patient should notify health care professional if dryness persists (saliva substitutes may be used). Also, notify the dentist if dryness interferes with use of dentures.
  • Instruct patient to notify health care professional of all Rx or OTC medications, vitamins, or herbal products being taken and consult health care professional before taking any new medications, especially cold remedies, or drinking alcoholic beverages.
  • Caution patient that this medication decreases perspiration. Overheating may occur during hot weather. Patient should remain indoors, in an air-conditioned environment, during hot weather.
  • Advise patient to increase activity and bulk and fluid in diet to minimize constipating effects of medication.
  • Advise patient to avoid taking antacids or antidiarrheals within 1–2 hr of this medication.
  • Advise patient to notify health care professional if confusion, rash, urinary retention, severe constipation, or visual changes occur.
  • Emphasize the importance of routine follow-up exams.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Decrease in tremors and rigidity and an improvement in gait and balance. Therapeutic effects are usually seen 2–3 days after the initiation of therapy.
  • Resolution of drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms.

trihexyphenidyl

/tri·hex·y·phen·i·dyl/ (tri-hek″sĭ-fen´ĭ-dil) an antidyskinetic used as the hydrochloride salt in the treatment of parkinsonism and for the control of drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions.
References in periodicals archive ?
This has been shown through many case reports, with at least partial response to anticholinergics (amitripryline, trihexyphenidyl, benztropine, biperiden, pirenzepine, ipratropium, scopolamine, hyoscine, atropine, and glycopyrrolate) and [alpha]-blockers (clonidine, lofexidine, guanfacine, and terazosin).
These include drugs that impede nerve impulses (called anticholinergic drugs) such as trihexyphenidyl, benztropine or ethopropazine, which work by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that activates muscle contractions.
A search of this patient's cell probably would uncover a stash of quetiapine and trihexyphenidyl used for bartering.
Mirapex) Anticholinergics, amantadine and deprenyl Trihexyphenidyl (Artane) May help reduce tremor and to a Apo-trihex lesser extent, bradykinesia and Benztropine (Cogentin) rigidity.
Contract notice: Completion of a non-exclusive discount agreement pursuant to A* 130a paragraph 8 sgb v to the active ingredient trihexyphenidyl -.
Our Medline search combined "anticholinergic, cholinergic antagonist, trihexyphenidyl, or benztropine" and "cognitive, cognition, or memory.
In healthy volunteers, several single- or double-dose studies using scopolamine, biperiden, or trihexyphenidyl have demonstrated a decrease in DM, a decrease in DM and NDM, or a decrease in DM and NDM but not WM.
5 days decreased DM in healthy volunteers, and another showed that benztropine 4 mg/day or trihexyphenidyl 8 mg/day given for 4 days decreased DM, with the effect more pronounced in the elderly.
In one long-term study of healthy volunteers, 20 cognitively intact patients (mean age 47 years) were given trihexyphenidyl 15-74 mg/day for idiopathic dystonia in this placebo-controlled trial (Clin.
While benztropine, trihexyphenidyl, and diphenhydramine are all effective for resting tremor, these agents have not proven to be useful for any other movement disorders.
Other medications included: alprazolam, bupropion, bumetanide, cisapride, enalapril, fluoxetine, sertraline, loratadine, melatonin, oxybutynin, propranolol, provera/premarin, trihexyphenidyl and vitamin B12.
37] Benztropine (Cogentin) and trihexyphenidyl (Artane) are most often used in the United States (US).