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The methyl betaine of nicotinic acid; a product of the metabolism of nicotinic acid; excreted in the urine.
Synonym(s): caffearine, trigenolline
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
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precatorius agglutinin), carbohydrates (galactose, arabinose, and xylose), flavonoids (abectorin, dimethoxycentaureidin-7-o-rutinoside, and precatorin I, II, and III), anthocyanins (delphinindin, pelargonindin, and cyaniding), and alkaloids (dimethyl tryptophan, methocation, picatorine, abrine, hypaphorine, choline, and trigonelline).
It was not just caffeine, but a mix of compounds including hydroxycinnamic acids notably chlorogenic acid, trigonelline, diterpenes eg cafestol and kahweol, and caffeic acid, that is said to be the reason behind the link, said Mattias Carlstrom, Associate Professor from the Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
A combination of coffee's compounds, including trigonelline, cafestol, cafeic acid and chlorogenic acid, are thought to be important.
-A number of potentially clinically relevant compounds are present in coffee, including: caffeine, hydroxycinnamic acids notably chlorogenic acid, trigonelline, diterpenes eg cafestol and kahweol, and caffeic acid ( ANI )
They also identified trigonelline, a plant hormone, as the active component in Sakurajima Daikon that appears to promote a cascade of changes in coronary blood vessels resulting in improved nitric oxide production.-- IANS
* Trigonelline: A compound with antibacterial properties.
The 3-hydroxykynurenine, homogentisate and tyrosine biomarkers were identified before dementia, and 1methylnicotinamide, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, urea, dimethylamine, trigonelline and trimethylamine (42) could be identified in the advanced stages of the disease.
According to the aforementioned authors, coffee belonging to species Robusta presents higher caffeine and chlorogenic acid levels and lower trigonelline levels than coffee belonging to species Arabica.
Coffees of superior quality are those that have chemical compounds responsible for the flavor and aroma such as caffeine, trigonelline, aldehydes, furans, ketones, sugars, proteins, amino acids, pyrroles, pyridines, pyrazines, oxazoles, carboxylic acids, fatty acids, and phenolic compounds in an equilibrated proportion to obtain good body, acidity, and smoothness of the beverage.
A recent work, making use of ECG biomarkers such as RR interval, QRS complex, and QT interval, showed that concomitant administration of trigonelline and sitagliptin produced a cardioprotective effect in contrast with monotherapy in diabetic rats [34].
To achieve more discriminative power, a biomarker group was generated including 6 upregulated (creatine, tryptophan, N-acetylhistidine, L-carnitine, pyroglutamic acid, and indoleacrylic acid) and 10 downregulated (prolinebetaine, L-acetylcarnitine, pipecolic acid, xanthurenic acid, trigonelline, kynurenic acid, indole-3-carboxylic acid, phosphorylcholine, 4-pyridoxic acid, and thymine) metabolites with AUC > 0.85.
Acute Effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance.