toxins produced by Stachybotrys atra strains isolated in Middle Europe.
Pinton P Oswald IP Effect of deoxynivalenol and other Type B trichothecenes
on the intestine: a review.
Using a molecular approach in current work the trichothecene
chemotype distribution analysis among the wheat cultivation of these three provinces revealed only one dominant chemotype (DON) furthermore 15-AcDON type was the only sub- chemotype throughout the sampling area.
Influence of harvest and storage conditions on trichothecenes
levels in various cereals.
We now have enough data and evidence to support our claims that the fungus is not producing trichothecene
mycotoxins above EPA-approved levels.
Transgenic expression of the TRI 101 or PDR 5 gene increases resistance of tobacco to the phytotoxic effects of the trichothecene
42 For what reasons did he dismiss Unmovic's conclusion of March 2003 that the development of the agent trichothecene
did not proceed much beyond the research and laboratory stage in Iraq?
Table 2 Candidate BW Agents for Weaponization Disease Causative Agent Anthrax Bacillus anthracis Plague Yersinia pestis Tularemia Francisella tularensis Cholera Vibrio cholerae Venezuelan equine encephalitis VEE virus Q fever Coxiella burnetti Botulism Clostridium botulinum toxin Staphylococcal enterotoxemia Staphylococcus enterotoxin type B Multiple organ toxicity Trichothecene
mycotoxin Disease Incubation Time Fatalities (Days) (Percent) Anthrax one to five 80 Plague one to five 90 Tularemia 10 to 14 five to 20 Cholera two to five 25 to 50 Venezuelan equine encephalitis two to five < one Q fever 12 to 21 < one Botulism three 30 Staphylococcal enterotoxemia one to six < one Multiple organ toxicity Dose Dependent Source: The Biological and Chemical Warfare Threat (Washington, D.
A variety of toxins can be used for biological warfare, including ricin, trichothecene
mycotoxins, and staphylococcal enterotoxins (71).
Syngenta Participations AG (Basel, Switzerland) has patented trichothecene
-resistant transgenic plants, plant tissues, plant seeds, and plant cells comprising a heterologous polynucleotide encoding a gene product having tricothecene resistance activity that thereby confers trichothecene
resistance to the transgenic plants, plant tissues, plant seeds, and plant cells.
mycotoxins are a group of toxic secondary metabolites characterized by the tetracyclic 12,13-epoxy trichothecenes
, since they all have an olefinic bond at C9, 10 and the epoxy ring at C12, 13 (Bamburg et al.
Filamentous fungi, especially those of the Fusarium, Myrotecium, Trichoderma, and Stachybotrys genera, produce trichothecene