triazolam


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Related to triazolam: Halcion

triazolam

 [tri-a´zo-lam]
a benzodiazepine used as a sedative and hypnotic in treatment of insomnia; administered orally.

triazolam

Apo-Triazo (CA), Gen-Triazolam (CA), Halcion

Pharmacologic class: Benzodiazepine

Therapeutic class: Sedative-hypnotic

Controlled substance schedule IV

Pregnancy risk category X

Action

Inhibits gamma-aminobutyric acid, a neurotransmitter that activates receptors at limbic, thalamic, and hypothalamic levels of CNS

Availability

Tablets: 0.125 mg, 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg

Indications and dosages

Insomnia

Adults: 0.125 to 0.5 mg P.O. at bedtime p.r.n. After 7 to 10 days, decrease dosage gradually and then discontinue.

Dosage adjustment

• Elderly or debilitated patients

Off-label uses

• Presurgical hypnotic

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug or other benzodiazepines

• Concurrent use of itraconazole, ketoconazole, or nefazodone

• Pregnancy

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• hepatic or renal dysfunction, sleep apnea, respiratory compromise, psychosis

• history of suicide attempt or drug abuse

• elderly or debilitated patients

• breastfeeding patients

• children younger than age 18 (safety and efficacy not established).

Administration

• Don't give with grapefruit juice.

Adverse reactions

CNS: dizziness, excessive sedation, hangover, headache, anterograde or traveler's amnesia, confusion, incoordination, lethargy, depression, paradoxical excitation, light-headedness, psychological disturbance, euphoria

GI: nausea, vomiting

Other: physical or psychological drug dependence, drug tolerance, withdrawal symptoms (tremor, abdominal and muscle cramps, vomiting, diaphoresis, dysphoria, perceptual disturbances, insomnia)

Interactions

Drug-drug. Antidepressants, antihistamines, chloral hydrate, opioid analgesics, other psychotropic drugs: additive CNS depression

Cimetidine, disulfiram, fluconazole, hormonal contraceptives, isoniazid, itraconazole, ketoconazole, nefazodone, rifampin, and other drugs that inhibit CYP450-3A4-mediated metabolism: decreased oxidative metabolism and increased action of triazolam

Digoxin: increased digoxin blood level, greater risk of toxicity

Macrolide anti-infectives (such as azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin): increased triazolam bioavailability

Probenecid: rapid onset and prolonged effects of triazolam

Ranitidine: increased triazolam blood level

Theophylline: decreased sedative effect of triazolam

Drug-food. Grapefruit juice: increased triazolam blood level and effects

Drug-herbs. Chamomile, hops, kava, skullcap, valerian: increased CNS depression

Drug-behaviors. Alcohol use: increased CNS depression

Smoking: increased triazolam clearance

Patient monitoring

• Monitor neurologic status. Watch for paradoxical or rebound drug effects.

• Observe for signs of drug hoarding and drug abuse.

Patient teaching

• Tell patient to take at bedtime with a liquid other than grapefruit juice.

• Explain that drug is meant only for short-term use (7 to 10 days).

• Tell patient rebound insomnia may occur for 1 to 2 nights after he discontinues drug.

• Instruct patient to avoid alcohol use and smoking.

• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities while under drug's influence.

• As appropriate, review all other significant adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, foods, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.

triazolam

(trī-ā′zə-lăm)
n.
A benzodiazepine drug, C17H12Cl2N4, used for short-term treatment of insomnia.

triazolam

Halcion® Pharmacology A sedative-hypnotic benzodiazepine analogue. Adverse effects Drowsiness, ↓ concentration See Benzodiazepine.
References in periodicals archive ?
Effect of sublingual triazolam on the success of inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with irreversible pulpitis.
Las estatinas, los antidepresivos, analgesicos, anticonvulsivos (carbamacepina, fenitoina) y sedantes (midazolam, alprazolam, triazolam) estan contraindicados al administrar boceprevir.
I took my medications (lithium, perphenazine, trihexyphenidyl, triazolam) and, thanks to them, I had no symptoms ("no disturbance of mood," my family physician wrote in his report to the psychiatrist), and I functioned pretty well (teaching full time).
Comparative cognitive and psychomotor effects of single doses of Valeriana officinalis and triazolam in healthy volunteers.
reported that sublingual administration of triazolam with higher effectiveness and oral administration with lower intensity reduced the pain and anxiety in dental patients [28].
These include the benzodiazepines, such as estazolam, flurazepam, quazepam, temazepam, and triazolam; and the non-benzodiazepines (also known as selective benzodiazepine receptor agonists) such as zaleplon, zolpidem and its various preparations (oral, sublingual, and oral spray); and eszopiclone.
Schedule IV substances include alprazolam (Xanax[R]), carisoprodol (Soma[R]), clonazepam (Klonopin[R]), clorazepate (Tranxene[R]), diazepam (Valium[R]), lorazepam (Ativan[R]), midazolam (Versed[R]), temazepam (Restoril[R]), and triazolam (Halcion[R]), among others.
After this encounter, the patient was placed on an every-other-day trial of different GABA agonists, including zolpidem CR in two forms (one pill 12.5 mg, two pills 6.25 mg each), eszopiclone, alprazolam, temazepam, flurazepam, and triazolam. In addition, she was given a one-time dose of tizanidine, an [alpha]-2 adrenergic agonist, as a muscle relaxant for the painful muscle spasms she was developing secondary to her disease.
The electrochemical quantitative analysis of many drugs has been carried out by polarographic techniques, some of them are benzodiazepines (bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, diazepam, dipotassium chlorazepate, flunitrazepam; flurazepam, lorazepam, medazepam, midazolam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, pinazepam, prazepam, temazepam, triazolam, clobazam), meprobamate, phenothiazine- thioxantene- and butyrophenone-derivatives, sulpirid, reserpine, imipramine, thioridazine, amitriptyline, imipramine, opipramol, doxepine, chlorpromazine, levopromazine, perazine, prothipendyl, chlorprothixene, triperidol, methamphetamine [5].
CNS drugs: Alfentanil (oral), Buspirone, Dextromethorphan, Fentanyl (oral), Ketamine (oral), Lurasidone, Oxycodone, Pimozide, Quetiapine, Triazolam, Ziprasidone
This commonly affects prothrombin time in association with coumarin anticoagulants such as warfarin, as well as increasing plasma levels of theophylline, metronidazole, imipramine, triazolam, diazepam, phenytoin, lignocaine, quinidine, nifedipine and propranolol.