travelers' diarrhea


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travelers' diarrhea

Montezuma's revenge, Aztec two-step, E coli enteritis, Turkey trot, Dehli belly Internal medicine A condition defined as '… the passage of at least 3 unformed stools in a 24-hr period … with N&V, abdominal pain or cramps, fecal urgency, tenesmus, passage of bloody or mucoid stools …in a person who normally resides in an industrialized region and who travels to a developing or semitropical country…Diarrhea > 1 wk in 10% of Pts, and > 1 month in 2%; ±20% of Pts are confined to bed for 1-2 days; most diarrhea in travelers is acquired orally and caused by the heat-stable and heat-labile toxins of E coli and Shigella; the intensity of infection depends on water supply quality, and previous host exposure and susceptibility Pathogens on cruise ships Shigella, Salmonella, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni, Plesiomonas shigelloides, V cholerae–non-01, V fluvialis, Yersinia enterocolitica Parasites Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli, Cryptosporidium spp, Dientamoeba fragilis, Isospora belli, Strongyloides stercoralis Viruses Norwalk-like agents, rotavirus Management Rehydration, bismuth subsalicylate, narcotic analogs to slow the motility and T-S if antibiotics are required Prevention Boil it, cook it, peel it, or forget it. See Airline food, Cruise ship-related diarrhea.

travelers' diarrhea

Abbreviation: TD
Diarrhea experienced by visitors, esp. those who go to tropical countries. The most common causes are enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, amebas, Giardia, Cyclospora, Cryptosporidium, Shigella, Salmonella, and Campylobacter. The disease is common, affecting as many as 40% of travelers to underdeveloped nations. There is no completely effective method of prevention, but avoidance of tap water, fresh fruits and vegetables, iced drinks, or inadequately cooked foods is helpful. Fish and shellfish may contain biotoxins even when well cooked; local residents can provide valuable advice concerning which fish to avoid. Loperamide with a quinolone antibiotic (such as ciprofloxacin) used after the passage of the first loose stool frequently aborts the illness, but children and pregnant women should not take quinolones. As with other forms of diarrhea, rehydration is crucial. Antidiarrheals are used for comfort.
See also: diarrhea

Patient discussion about travelers' diarrhea

Q. What Is Travelers' Diarrhea? I wanted to know- what exactly is travelers' diarrhea?

A. Travelers' diarrhea is the most common illness affecting travelers. Travelers' diarrhea is defined as three or more unformed stools in 24 hours, commonly accompanied by abdominal cramps, nausea and bloating. Each year 20%–50% of international travelers, an estimated 10 million people, develop diarrhea, usually within the first week of traveling. It can occur due to poor sanitary conditions, usually by bacterial infection. Escherichia coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, and Shigella are the most common bacteria involved. High-risk destinations are the developing countries of Latin America, Africa, the Middle East and Asia.

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References in periodicals archive ?
Foods to avoid include raw and undercooked meats and fish, (especially raw shellfish which may cause hepatitis A as well as travelers' diarrhea), reheated foods, unpasteurized dairy products such as milk, ice cream, butter and cheese, raw and undercooked eggs, custards and mayonnaise.
What treatment measures are effective for travelers' diarrhea?
Travelers' diarrhea is a syndrome characterized by a twofold or greater increase in the frequency of unformed bowel movements.
* Recommend antibiotic chemoprophylaxis for travelers at high risk for travelers' diarrhea (TD) and those at high risk for complications.
Precautions (and prophylaxis) may prevent travelers' diarrhea Diarrhea--among the most common travel-related conditions (20)--affects an estimated 30% to 70% of international travelers.
A randomized, double-blind, multicenter study of rifaximin compared with placebo and with ciprofloxacin in the treatment of travelers' diarrhea. Am J Trop Med Hyg.
The book, which always has a yellow cover, includes information on topics including jet lag, cruise ship travel, international adoptions, common respiratory conditions, drug-vaccine interactions, and travelers' diarrhea. Some topics such as medical tourism are appearing in this edition for the first time.
Ericsson (head of Clinical Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical School-Houston) collects work by 65 experts in infectious disease and related fields, summarizing what is known about travelers' diarrhea, in sections on etiology and pathogenesis, epidemiology and special populations, clinical features, and prevention.
An experimental oral vaccine appears safe and effective in reducing the incidence and severity of travelers' diarrhea in adults, A.
The program will focus on health risks for travelers; health aspects for temporary residents; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; sexually transmitted diseases; vaccine-preventable diseases; malaria; travelers' diarrhea, respiratory diseases, and other infections; individual preventive measures; vaccines, immune globulins, and chemoprophylaxis; noninfectious diseases; jet lag and motion sickness; psychologic aspects of travel; substance abuse; injuries; health promotion for travelers; environmental health aspects; illness and medical care abroad; self-diagnosis and self-treatment; medical evacuation; and travelers' clinics.
Notable chapters discuss general approaches to travel medicine, immunizations, managing jet lag and motion sickness, counseling HIV-infected travelers, malaria prevention, avoiding and self-treating travelers' diarrhea, evaluating diarrhea in returned travelers, tropical dermatology and sexually transmitted infections.
Rifaximin (Xifaxan), a nonabsorbable antibiotic with gastrointestinal specificity approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating travelers' diarrhea, is approved in 17 other countries for management of hepatic encephalopathy.