traumatic brain injury


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Related to traumatic brain injury: Mild traumatic brain injury

traumatic brain injury

n. Abbr. TBI
Injury to the brain caused by an external force such as a violent blow to the head, resulting in loss of consciousness, memory loss, dizziness, and confusion, and in some cases leading to long-term health effects, including motor and sensory problems, cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and dementia.

trau·mat·ic brain in·ju·ry

(TBI) (traw-mat'ik brān in'jŭr-ē)
An insult to the brain as the result of physical trauma or external force, not degenerative or congenital, that may cause a diminished or altered state of consciousness and may impair cognitive, behavioral, physical, or emotional functioning.
Synonym(s): acquired brain injury.

traumatic brain injury

Abbreviation: TBI
Any injury involving direct trauma to the head, accompanied by alterations in mental status or consciousness. TBI is one of the most common causes of neurological dysfunction in the U.S. Each year about 50,000 people die from brain trauma, and an additional 70,000 to 90,000 sustain persistent neurological impairment because of it. About 5.3 million Americans live with TBI disabilities. The most common causes of TBI are motor vehicle or bicycle collisions; falls; gunshot wounds; assaults and abuse; and sports-related injuries. Twice as many males as females suffer TBIs, with the incidence highest between ages 15 and 24. People over 75 are also frequently affected (because of falls).

Patient care

Many traumatic injuries to the head and brain are preventable if simple precautions are followed: motorists should never drive while intoxicated; cyclists and bicyclists should always wear helmets; frail, elderly people should wear supportive footwear and use sturdy devices to assist them while walking.

Symptoms of TBI may include problems with concentration, depressed mood, dizziness, headaches, impulsivity, irritability, post-traumatic stress, or, in severe injuries, focal motor, sensory or verbal deficits. Late effects of severe or repeated injuries can include dementia, Parkinsonism, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease).

CAUTION!

If an injury to the brain has occurred or is suspected, the victim should not be moved until spinal precautions are carefully implemented. Serial neurologic assessments are carried out to identify the severity of injury and any subsequent deterioration, using the Glasgow Coma Scale.

TBIs can produce intracranial hemorrhage (epidural hematoma [EDH]), subdural hematoma (SDH), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH); cerebral contusions; concussion (with postconcussive syndrome); and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Treatments vary depending upon the type of injury that occurred. Synonym: cerebral concussion

See: table
See also: injury

trau·mat·ic brain in·ju·ry

(TBI) (traw-mat'ik brān in'jŭr-ē)
An insult to the brain as the result of physical trauma or external force, not degenerative or congenital, which may cause a diminished or altered state of consciousness and may impair cognitive, behavioral, physical, or emotional functioning.
References in periodicals archive ?
Neuropsychological test data has consistently documented changes on standardized measures of cognitive functioning after mild traumatic brain injury, even in the absence of neurodiagnostic findings.
In a case-control cohort, 1,36,233 individuals diagnosed with dementia at follow-up were matched with control participants who did not develop dementia, and in a third cohort, the researchers studied 46,970 sibling pairs with one individual having a traumatic brain injury.
The impact of time, legislation, and geography on the epidemiology of traumatic brain injury.
Traumatic brain injury is a serious public health concern in both civilian life and in the US military.
Attempting to provide insight into traumatic brain injury, the research project will use animal models of traumatic brain injury and advanced imaging techniques to elucidate small-scale underlying changes at the organ, tissue and cellular levels.
While a single mild traumatic brain injury, especially with appropriate treatment, is unlikely to lead to long-term problems, there are some sobering concerns about people who've had multiple brain injuries.
A total of 435,630 people with traumatic brain injury were studied, along with 736,723 people with trauma with no brain injury.
Coverage of the Traumatic Brain Injury pipeline on the basis of route of administration and molecule type.
However, until now, no research had been done showing a correlation between traumatic brain injury and stroke.
This application, developed by the National Center for Telehealth and Technology (T2), gives providers a comprehensive, quick reference that includes clinical practice guidelines for assessing and treating service members and veterans who have sustained a mild traumatic brain injury, commonly referred to as a concussion.
Sustaining a mild traumatic brain injury during combat is not associated with long-term negative psychosocial symptoms, unless it is combined with posttraumatic stress disorder, according to study findings.
This update of the 2004 edition titled Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation reflects not only advances in the field but also changes in access to treatment for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI).

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