traumatic brain injury


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Related to traumatic brain injury: Mild traumatic brain injury

traumatic brain injury

n. Abbr. TBI
Injury to the brain caused by an external force such as a violent blow to the head, resulting in loss of consciousness, memory loss, dizziness, and confusion, and in some cases leading to long-term health effects, including motor and sensory problems, cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and dementia.

trau·mat·ic brain in·ju·ry

(TBI) (traw-mat'ik brān in'jŭr-ē)
An insult to the brain as the result of physical trauma or external force, not degenerative or congenital, that may cause a diminished or altered state of consciousness and may impair cognitive, behavioral, physical, or emotional functioning.
Synonym(s): acquired brain injury.

traumatic brain injury

Abbreviation: TBI
Any injury involving direct trauma to the head, accompanied by alterations in mental status or consciousness. TBI is one of the most common causes of neurological dysfunction in the U.S. Each year about 50,000 people die from brain trauma, and an additional 70,000 to 90,000 sustain persistent neurological impairment because of it. About 5.3 million Americans live with TBI disabilities. The most common causes of TBI are motor vehicle or bicycle collisions; falls; gunshot wounds; assaults and abuse; and sports-related injuries. Twice as many males as females suffer TBIs, with the incidence highest between ages 15 and 24. People over 75 are also frequently affected (because of falls).

Patient care

Many traumatic injuries to the head and brain are preventable if simple precautions are followed: motorists should never drive while intoxicated; cyclists and bicyclists should always wear helmets; frail, elderly people should wear supportive footwear and use sturdy devices to assist them while walking.

Symptoms of TBI may include problems with concentration, depressed mood, dizziness, headaches, impulsivity, irritability, post-traumatic stress, or, in severe injuries, focal motor, sensory or verbal deficits. Late effects of severe or repeated injuries can include dementia, Parkinsonism, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease).

CAUTION!

If an injury to the brain has occurred or is suspected, the victim should not be moved until spinal precautions are carefully implemented. Serial neurologic assessments are carried out to identify the severity of injury and any subsequent deterioration, using the Glasgow Coma Scale.

TBIs can produce intracranial hemorrhage (epidural hematoma [EDH]), subdural hematoma (SDH), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH); cerebral contusions; concussion (with postconcussive syndrome); and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Treatments vary depending upon the type of injury that occurred. Synonym: cerebral concussion

See: table
See also: injury

trau·mat·ic brain in·ju·ry

(TBI) (traw-mat'ik brān in'jŭr-ē)
An insult to the brain as the result of physical trauma or external force, not degenerative or congenital, which may cause a diminished or altered state of consciousness and may impair cognitive, behavioral, physical, or emotional functioning.
References in periodicals archive ?
This study was done to find the efficacy of TOU in trauma and critical care units for traumatic brain injury patients in identification of increased ICP due to any intracranial bleed, and we found it to be very helpful and useful instrument which can timely detect intracranial bleed, indirectly, if one has a high index of suspicion and patient history is also in favor.
Substance abuse and criminal activities following traumatic brain Injury in childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood.
Current and emerging technologies for probing molecular signatures of traumatic brain injury. Front Neurol 2017;8:450.
Many people might not realize that you don't have to suffer from a concussion to experience a traumatic brain injury.
Predicting outcome after traumatic brain injury: development and international validation of prognostic scores based on admission characteristics.
In the study, published in the journal PLOS Medicine, the team matched 1,64,334 individuals with traumatic brain injury with control participants who did not have the injury.
Sex differences in outcome after mild traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2010; 27:527-39.
TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY AND A HISTORY OF NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DYSFUNCTION IN WAR: SHELL SHOCK, POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER, AND DEMENTIA
And previous study showed prolonged righting reflex after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury [8, 10].
The trial is designed to study the safety, efficacy and tolerability of SB623 in patients with chronic motor impairments persisting at least twelve months following traumatic brain injury.
Traumatic brain injury might be underdiagnosed in patients who, nevertheless, develop temporary or permanent functional disability or psychosocial impairment in the presence of a negative CT scan.

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