Generally, internal drainage devices such as double-J stents are placed in retrograde transvesical
route by urologists via a cystoscope (5, 6).
Cleveland technique (transvesical
method): Access to the bladder is achieved through 3 mm suprapubic ports, the ureteral orifice is sealed with an endoloop, and the orifice is completely circumscribed to the perivesical area.
Eighteen-month results of a randomized prospective study comparing transurethral photoselective vaporization with transvesical
open enucleation for prostatic adenomas greater than 80 cc.
Prostatectomy is the gold standard of treatment for large BPH in elderly patients with COPD.
Prostate biopsy reports were recorded (positive or negative for PCa) once the patient underwent prostatectomy (transvesical
prostatectomy-TVP, transurethral resection of prostate-TURP or transrectal prostate biopsy-TRPB).
This was followed by transvesical
approach, more difficult, dangerous and rarer at the time.
approach permitted an adequate exposure of the fistula tract.
A short suprapubic Pfannenstiel incision was performed, followed by a transvesical
approach under cystoscopic control.
 For a variety of reasons, where the transvesical
route cannot be used, the transgastric route is recommended.
The type of surgical technique chosen (transvesical
, transvaginal, laparoscopic or robotic), depends on surgeon experience, whether the fistula is simple or complex, and patient characteristics.
approach for vesicovaginal fistula repair.