We further performed transstadial transmission
of SFTSV by rearing larvae to adults.
Similarly, the infection passes from the egg to the larva or adult in a process called transstadial transmission
. In this way, chigger mite populations can autonomously maintain their infectivity over long periods of time.
of infectious agents is also possible, such as with hard ticks.
The virus replicates in the host tick as it passes from larval through adult stages (transstadial transmission
), and it can also be transmitted from one generation to the next (transovarial transmission).
* Transstadial Transmission
of Francisella tularensis holarctica in Mosquitoes, Sweden
of Borrelia turcica in Hyalomma aegyptium ticks.
Our results suggest natural transstadial transmission
aureolatum ticks are highly efficient in maintaining the infection through 100% transstadial transmission
, transovarial transmission, and filial infection rates.
The ticks maintained infection throughout the molt, thereby establishing transstadial transmission
. The experimentally infected ticks were also able to transmit B.
henselae of molted ticks previously fed infected blood, suggesting that transstadial transmission
may be possible.
This study provides evidence of transovarial and transstadial transmission
of the parasite within Ixodes ricinus, which suggests that this tick could be a vector and reservoir of EUI.
More recently, an artificial membrane system was used to infect Argas arboreus ticks, which were then able to transmit the virus to uninfected hosts, although transstadial transmission
of WNV was not observed (25,26).