This intraocular disease has high rates of mortality, with projected fatality estimates at approximately 42% out of all the cases worldwide.8 We have seen the treatment of retinoblastoma progress steadily over the past 100 years or so, and the management of the disease has become more advanced to increase the chances of salvage not only of a patient's life, but also of a functional vision.9 Currently ocular salvage therapies for this malignancy involve systemic intravenous chemotherapy, external beam radiotherapy, cryotherapy, transpupillary
thermotherapy and indirect laser photocoagulation.10
Argon laser photocoagulation, transpupillary
thermotherapy, intravitreal injection of antivascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF), micropulse diode laser photocoagulation, and photodynamic therapy have all been used to manage steroid-induced CSC patients who cannot discontinue steroid therapy [8, 21-26].
Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a noninvasive, noncontact, transpupillary
imaging modality for investigating retinal structure.
Other available options include particle beam radiotherapy, transpupillary
thermotherapy, laser photocoagulation, gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery and local surgical resection, the NCBI stated.
The aim of the present study was to report our experience with the safety and efficacy of transpupillary
diode laser photocoagulation for the treatment of type 1 ROP infants according to the definitions specified by the ETROP study.
44(10%) out of 40 developed choroidal neovascular membrane in one of the eyes which responded to transpupillary
The tools for management of retinoblastoma include enucleation, radiotherapy (teletherapy or brachytherapy), chemotherapy, cryotherapy, laser photocoagulation, and transpupillary
Other interventions include hyperthermia and transpupillary
thermotherapy to reduce radiation-related complications.
The available treatment options include enucleation (eye removal), chemoreduction, selective intraarterial and systemic chemotherapy, laser photocoagulation, focal cryotherapy, transpupillary
thermotherapy, plaque brachytherapy, and external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT).
Roider, "Temperature-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induction in human retinal pigment epithelium--implications for transpupillary
thermotherapy in uveal melanoma," Acta Ophthalmologica, vol.
As such, treatments such as laser or cryotherapy, brachytherapy, chemotherapy, transpupillary
thermochemotherapy and radiotherapy are now the management of choice, (5) particularly as they also avoid the serious side effects of secondary malignancy and ocular and orbital complications as associated with the traditional treatments.