transposons


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transposons

Discrete mobile sequences in the genome that can transport themselves directly from one part of the genome to another without the use of a vehicle such as a phage or plasmid DNA. They are able to move by making DNA copies of their RNA transcripts which are then incorporated into the genome at a new site. Sometimes called ‘jumping genes’.
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Transposons were discovered in the 1940s by Barbara McClintock, who was rewarded in 1983 with the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.
The association of markers with known genes as well as with transposon elements was also investigated.
Limited study of tandem repeats and LTR transposons has been reported, but there is currently little systematic comparison of these measures in humans.
The transposon system results in fluorescence-tagged mutant chromosomes, opening the door to an array of new genetic screens that are difficult or impossible to conduct using more traditional mutagenesis methods, such as chemical or retroviral insertion.
Like plasmids, transposons are extra-chromosomal, non-replicative DNA, lacking conjugative ability, able to transfer resistance genes among chromosomes or plasmids via a similar unique mobility.
Early nutrition, epigenetic changes at transposons and imprinted genes, and enhanced susceptibility to adult chronic diseases.
The species difference is very unusual indeed, because the gene responsible for this resistance can be transferred easily in the laboratory between the two species carried on pheromone responsive plasmids or conjugative transposons.
One question he hopes to answer is why our genomes are almost half full of sequences called transposons.
Transposons are also called "jumping genes" because they can jump from one place on a chromosome to another.
Genetic changes can be brought about by transposons rearranging the genome--often in response to changes in the environment (bacteria).
Introduction via transduction of bacterophage DNA into a bacterial genome containing transposons from a mutant plasmid, led to a global, apparently regulated mutation, throughout that genome, far beyond the region of integration.