The aim of the present study was to measure genome damage in newborn pups transplacentally
exposed to selected drugs often used during pregnancy (19-22), using an in vivo micronucleus (MN) assay (23), and to compare the results with levels of GPX and MDA.
This includes phagocytes (by monocytes, tissue macrophages, and neutrophils), natural killer cells, and humoral mediators (CRP, complements, and transplacentally
acquired maternal antibodies).
Exposure of the cells to the test compound can be either directly in culture or transplacentally
prior to culture in ex vivo experiments.
A considerable part of the transplacentally
transferred glucose is used by the foetal brain.
When so many people are infected, and the pathogen can be transferred in blood transfusions, transplacentally
(from mother to fetus) and via organ transplant, it is not easy to prove that an increase in cases is due to global warming rather than immigration and nonin-sect transmission.
Kittens infected transplacentally
or early in the neonatal period are unlikely to survive.
Vertical transmission is either transplacentally
or from an infected birth canal.
Interestingly, they found that transplacentally
acquired anti-pneumolysin antibodies were associated with a significantly decreased risk of pneumococcal carriage during the first 3 months of life.
Syphilis is transmitted transplacentally
, and pregnant women are usually asymptomatic.
Early diagnosis in HIV-exposed infants remains difficult in most settings because of the presence of transplacentally
acquired IgG antibodies, which may persist for up to 18 months.
Protection of infants from infection with influenza A virus by transplacentally
If a female dog becomes pregnant, the dormant larvae become activated by host hormones and reenter the circulatory system, where they are carried to the placenta and hence infect puppies transplacentally