Immature ticks acquire the virus by feeding on infected small vertebrates or by the transovarial
This because if the tick female is infected and transovarial
transmission occurs, as in some Amblyomma species (Labruna, et al., 2011; Saraiva, et al.
transmission of dengue viruses is a crucial phenomenon responsible for persistence of the viruses during inter-epidemic period (s) of the disease.
The endosymbiotic association is based on nutritional and defensive benefits to the host insect, and the association is perpetuated through transovarial
transmission (Nakabachi et al., 2013).
These ticks remain infected throughout their lives through transovarial
and/or transstadial transmission.
transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus by mosquitoes.
It is transmitted by the bite of infected larvae of trombiculid mites (chiggers) and maintained by transovarial
transmission of rickettsia-like microorganisms in mosquitoes," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol.
For RVF it has been hypothesized that RVF virus (RVFV) is maintained through transovarial
transmission in Aedes mosquito eggs .
Therefore, infection is independent of the ingestion of propagules, although horizontal and transovarial
infection also may occur (Ferron 1978; Feng et al.
transmission of Francisella-like endosymbionts and Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants in Dermacentor albipictus (Acari: Ixodidae).
Transstadial and transovarial
transmission of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Leptotrombidium imphalum and Leptotrombidium chiangraiensis (Acari: Trombiculidae).