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It has been postulated that leakage of cerebrospinal fluid can cause intracranial hypotension, increasing transmural pressure across the arterial and/or venous wall, facilitating rupture (13).
2])]], where the hemorrhage rate (Q) is the laceration area (A) times the square root of twice the transmural pressure change ([DELTA]P) divided by the blood density ([rho]) plus the velocity (v) squared.
Furthermore, Sampol and colleagues (41) suggest that the increased aortic transmural pressure may impose an additional risk of aortic dissection in OSA patients.
Pulsus paradoxus is related to an exaggerated change of the transmural pressure of the heart, or pulmonary blood vessels, or both during inspiration and expiration.
The transmural pressure is the sum of all the forces that dilate a blood vessel.
The normally high resistance of the nose in transnasal inspiration results in the introduction of subatmospheric intrapharyngeal pressure, and the transmural pressure of the pharynx tends to close the airway.
The transmural pressure of the atrium, LV and aorta is increased due to elevated intrathoracic pressure.
Occlusion occurs when the Pcrit becomes greater than the intraluminal pressure, resulting in a transmural pressure of zero.
The authors postulated that these changes might be the result of increased distention of either ventricle, a decrease in venous return to the right ventricle or altered transmural pressure as a result of the weight of the overlying lung.
Effect of continuous positive airway pressure on intrathoracic and left ventricular transmural pressures in patients with congestive heart failure.