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translation

 [trans-la´shun]
the synthesis of a polypeptide using messenger RNA as a template, a complex process involving ribosomes and transfer RNAs; every three bases (a codon) along the mRNA beginning with the start codon specifies one amino acid in the polypeptide chain.

trans·la·tion

(trans-lā'shŭn),
1. A change or conversion into another form.
2. The complex process by which messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomes effect the production of protein from amino acids, the specificity of synthesis being controlled by the base sequences of the messenger RNA.
3. In dentistry, the movement of a tooth through alveolar bone without change in axial inclination.
[L. translatio, a transferring, fr. transfero pp. -latus, to carry across]

translation

/trans·la·tion/ (trans-la´shun) in genetics, the process by which polypeptide chains are synthesized, the sequence of amino acids being determined by the sequence of bases in a messenger RNA, which in turn is determined by the sequence of bases in the DNA of the gene from which it was transcribed.
nick translation  a process by which labeled nucleotides are incorporated into duplex DNA at single strand nicks or cleavage points created enzymatically along its two strands.

translation

(trăns-lā′shən, trănz-)
n.
Biology The process by which messenger RNA directs the amino acid sequence of a growing polypeptide during protein synthesis.

trans′la·to′ry (-lə-tôr′ē) adj.

translation

[-lā′shən]
Etymology: L, translatio, handing over
the process in which the genetic information carried by nucleotides in messenger RNA directs the amino acid sequence in the synthesis of a specific polypeptide. See also anticodon, genetic code.

translation

Informatics
A work worded in another language.
 
Molecular biology
The process whereby the genetic information on mRNA is “decoded” and converted into a coherent protein; tRNA converges on ribosomes packaged as rRNA and, at the behest of mRNA, dispenses amino acids to a growing polypeptide chain; protein synthesis is divided into initiation, elongation and termination steps, and the assembly of amino acids into polypeptides using the genetic information encoded in mRNA. The mRNA is “read” from the 5’ end to the 3’ end, with the protein being synthesised from the amino terminus to the carboxyl terminus.
 
Vox populi
The conversion of one language to another. Local health and social service may facilitate the provision of interpreting and translating services.

trans·la·tion

(trans-lā'shŭn)
1. A change or conversion into another form.
2. The process by which messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomes effect the production of protein from amino acids.
3. dentistry The movement of a tooth through alveolar bone without change in axial inclination.

translation

1. A final stage in the expression of a gene; the lining up of amino acids and synthesis of a polypeptide on a ribosome by means of transfer RNA. Translation requires several enzymes.
2. In a clinical context, the successful application of a new research discovery to a therapeutic modality.
Translationclick for a larger image
Fig. 303 Translation . A polypeptide chain, formed by amino acids joined by peptide bonds.

translation

the formation of a POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN on a RIBOSOME during PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, using a sequence that is contained in MESSENGER RNA.

The process can be divided into a number of steps:

  1. (a) mRNA produced from the DNA during TRANSCRIPTION becomes attached to one or more ribosomes (see POLYRIBOSOME).
  2. (b) the RNA passes through the ribosome, beginning with a start (initiation) signal (generally AUG) near the 5′ end of RNA and ending with a stop signal near the 3′ end (see POLYNUCLEOTIDE CHAIN).
  3. (c) surrounding the ribosomes are various TRANSFER RNA molecules each attached to its specific AMINO ACID. As a triplet of RNA bases moves through the ribosome it is ‘read’ by the correct tRNA molecule which brings the correct amino acid. In bacteria, initiator tRNA is involved in initiating translation following an interaction between 16S rRNA of the small ribosome subunit and the SHINE-DALGARNO sequence on mRNA.
  4. (d) the amino acids become joined by PEPTIDE BONDS, forming a polypeptide chain. Termination occurs when the ribosome encounters a stop codon (UAA, UAG, UGA). See Fig. 303 . See GENETIC CODE for details of the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide chain.

translation

movement from one position to another along a straight or curved line (rectilinear or curvilinear motion). translational adj .

linear motion

; translation forward (or backward) motion of whole body, or entire limb; see angular motion

translation,

n 1., axial motion.
2., transfer of information from mRNA to proteins.

trans·la·tion

(trans-lā'shŭn)
In dentistry, movement of a tooth through alveolar bone without change in axial inclination.

translation,

n movement of a rigid body in which all parts move in the same direction at the same speed.

translation

the synthesis of a polypeptide using messenger RNA as a template, a complex process involving ribosomes and transfer RNAs; every three bases (a codon) along the mRNA beginning with the start codon specifies one amino acid in the polypeptide chain. See also deoxyribonucleic acid.

translation-inhibitory protein (TIP)
produced by cells with depression of DNA synthesis caused by the action of interferons. It inhibits viral replication by binding viral RNA on cell ribosomes.
nick translation
an in vitro procedure for introducing radiolabeled nucleotides into DNA. A method for preparing highly radioactive probes for use in a wide variety of hydridization techniques both in vitro and in vivo. The DNA fragment to be labeled and used as a probe is mixed with DNA polymerase I and the 4 α NTPs, one of which is labeled; the polymerase nicks the DNA fragment and by strand displacement (exonuclease action) displaces and recopies, incorporating the labeled α NTP.
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