biliary drainage: experience with 311 procedures (review article).
Several studies reported successful results with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS), balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO), and percutaneous transhepatic
obliteration (PTO) in treatment of duodenal varices (2-4).
Flow (THF) Variations and Small for Size and Flow Syndrome (SFSF).
In general, Child-Pugh score >7 or model of end liver disease score >11 for liver trauma combined with hepatic cirrhosis and transhepatic
vessel embolism may be safer compared to surgery.
Different diagnostic tools are available for preoperative imaging, all with their own strengths and weaknesses: endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with cholangiography (MRC), computed tomography (CT), or percutaneous transhepatic
cholangiography (PTC) .
To date US oral cholecystography oral cholecysto-computed tomography, scintigraphy, magnetic resonance cholangiography, percutaneous transhepatic
cholangiography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography have been used preoperatively to diagnose these anomalies (6).
The two methods most widely used for the relief of obstructive jaundice are percutaneous transhepatic
biliary drainage (PTBD) and endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD), including endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) and endoscopic biliary stenting (EBS).
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or percutaneous transhepatic
cholangiography (PTC) can be diagnostic by showing that the dilated ducts opacify with contrast, but these are invasive procedures and are not without risk.
Known today as percutaneous transhepatic
cholangiography (PTC), this procedure successfully demonstrates the biliary ducts, but requires passing a needle through the abdominal wall into the liver.
drainage of inaccessible postop-erative abdominal abscesses.
L'Hermine, "Biliary leaks: treatment by means of percutaneous transhepatic
biliary drainage," Radiology, vol.
Even a modulation of the transhepatic
flow, which could potentially give the liver a window period for regeneration, cannot be tolerated and the animal or patient dies.