transformation

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transformation

 [trans″for-ma´shun]
change of form or structure; conversion from one form to another. In oncology, the change that a normal cell undergoes as it becomes malignant.
bacterial transformation the exchange of genetic material between strains of bacteria by the transfer of a fragment of naked DNA from a donor cell to a recipient cell, followed by recombination in the recipient chromosome.

trans·for·ma·tion

(trans'fōr-mā'shŭn),
1. Synonym(s): metamorphosis
2. A change of one tissue into another, as cartilage into bone.
3. In metals, a change in phase and physical properties in the solid state caused by heat treatment.
4. In microbial genetics, transfer of genetic information between bacteria by means of "naked" intracellular DNA fragments derived from bacterial donor cells and incorporated into a competent recipient cell.
[L. trans-formo, pp. -atus, to transform]

transformation

/trans·for·ma·tion/ (trans″for-ma´shun)
1. change of form or structure; conversion from one form to another.
2. in oncology, the change that a normal cell undergoes as it becomes malignant.

bacterial transformation  the exchange of genetic material between strains of bacteria by the transfer of a fragment of naked DNA from a donor cell to a recipient cell, followed by recombination in the recipient chromosome.

transformation

(trăns′fər-mā′shən, -fôr-)
n.
Genetics
a. The change undergone by an animal cell upon infection by a cancer-causing virus.
b. The introduction of DNA from one cell into another by means of a bacteriophage or one of a variety of chemical or physical methods.

trans′for·ma′tion·al, trans·form′a·tive (-fôr′mə-tĭv) adj.

transformation

[-fôrmā′shən]
Etymology: L, transformare, to change shape
the integration of exogenous genes into chromosomes in a form that is recognized by the replicative and transcriptional apparatus of the host cell. Transformation occurs rarely in most cell populations.

transformation

Oncology Malignant transformation The change that a normal cell undergoes as it becomes malignant, either due to infection with an oncogenic virus or environmental factors. See Malignant transformation, Progressive transformation of germinal centers, Linear transformation, Sol-gel transformation.

trans·for·ma·tion

(trans'fŏr-mā'shŭn)
1. Synonym(s): metamorphosis.
2. A change of one tissue into another, such as cartilage into bone.
3. In metals, a change in phase and physical properties in the solid state caused by heat treatment.
4. microbial genetics Transfer of genetic information between bacteria by means of "naked" intracellular DNA fragments derived from bacterial donor cells and incorporated into a competent recipient cell.
[L. trans-formo, pp. -atus, to transform]

transformation

  1. the acquisition of genetic material by the uptake of naked DNA by recipients. The DNA may become incorporated into the host genome by RECOMBINATION or may be extrachromosomal and exist as an autonomous REPLICON. Transformation occurs in various microorganisms. The process is important historically since, following transformation experiments by Frederick GRIffiTH, on the Streptococcus (Diplococcus) pneumoniae bacterium, DNA was shown to be the genetical material of cells by AVERY, MacLeod and McCarthy.
  2. changes occurring in cultured cells, generally after infection by certain tumour viruses, such as an ability to divide indefinitely.
  3. changes in form.

trans·for·ma·tion

(transfŏr-māshŭn)
1. A change of one tissue into another, as in cartilage into bone.
2. In metals, change in phase and physical properties in solid state caused by heat treatment.
[L. trans-formo, pp. -atus, to transform]

transformation

change of form or structure; conversion from one form to another. In oncology, the change that a normal cell undergoes as it becomes malignant. In statistics a functional change to the variable.

bacterial transformation
the process of intercellular transfer of genetic information in which a small portion of the total DNA of a lysed bacterium enters a related bacterium and is incorporated into the DNA genome of the recipient.
cell transformation
the changes in types of proteins expressed and growth characteristics that take place in cells infected by some viruses, including tumor formation by retroviruses.
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