transfer RNA


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RNA

 
messenger RNA (mRNA) see ribonucleic acid.
ribosomal RNA (rRNA) see ribonucleic acid.
transfer RNA (tRNA) see ribonucleic acid.

trans·fer RNA (tRNA),

short-chain RNA molecules present in cells in at least 20 varieties, each variety is capable of combining with a specific amino acid (see aminoacyl-tRNA). By joining (through their anticodons) with particular spots (codons) along the messenger RNA molecule and carrying their amino acyl residues along, they lead to the formation of protein molecules with a specific amino acid arrangement-the one ultimately dictated by a segment of DNA in the chromosomes. Each tRNA has about 80 nucleotides (MW about 25,000); most of the 20 varieties occur in multiple "isoacceptor" forms, separable by chromatography. Further subvarieties exist in, e.g., different strains of an organism, in subcellular organelles, and in different metabolic states. Cognate tRNAs are the tRNAs recognized by the specific amino acyl-tRNA synthetases.

transfer RNA

n. Abbr. tRNA
One of a class of RNA molecules that transport amino acids to ribosomes for incorporation into a polypeptide undergoing synthesis.

transfer RNA (tRNA)

a kind of RNA that carries an anticodon (three nucleotide bases) and a specific amino acid. The identity of the amino acid is determined by the sequence of nucleotides in the anticodon. There are 64 possible anticodons and about two dozen amino acids that are found in proteins. This means that several anticodons may specify to the same amino acid. Each anticodon is complementary to a specific codon in the messenger RNA. The tRNAs (with their amino acids attached) translate the sequence of codons in messenger RNA into a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide. Also called adaptor RNA.

trans·fer RNA

(tRNA) (trans'fĕr)
Short-chain RNA molecules present in cells in at least 20 varieties, each variety capable of combining with a specific amino acid (see aminoacyl-tRNA). By joining (through their anticodons) with particular spots (codons) along the messenger RNA molecule and carrying their amino acyl residues along, they lead to the formation of protein molecules with a specific amino acid arrangement.
Synonym(s): soluble RNA.

transfer RNA

A short-chain RIBONUCLEIC ACID molecule present in cells in at least 20 different varieties, each capable of combining with a specific amino acid and positioning it appropriately in a polypeptide chain that is being synthesized in a ribosome. Transfer RNA is a four-armed, clover-leaf-like structure. At the end of one arm is an ANTICODON, complementary to the codon for an amino acid in MESSENGER RNA. At the end of the opposite arm is a site to which the appropriate amino acid can be covalently linked. When a molecule of transfer RNA is linked to the amino acid corresponding to its anticodon it becomes aminoacyl-tRNA. The identity of the passenger on a particular tRNA molecule is determined by its anticodon rather than by its attached amino acid.
Transfer RNAclick for a larger image
Fig. 302 Transfer RNA .

transfer RNA (tRNA)

a form of RNA molecule with about 80 NUCLEOTIDES and a secondary ‘cloverleaf structure, whose function is to carry specific AMINO ACIDS to the ribosomes during TRANSLATION. At one end (3′ end) there is attachment of the amino acid producing AMINOACYL-tRNA. One of the arms of the cloverleaf, the ‘anticodon arm’, contains the anticodon with three bases complementary to the codon on MESSENGER RNA. See Fig. 302 . Different tRNA molecules bind different amino acids and act as adaptors to match the amino acids to their specific codons on mRNA.

transfer RNA

tRNA; see ribonucleic acid.
References in periodicals archive ?
In addition to having self-catalytic activity, RNA molecules are involved in all the steps of translation, from the initial activation of amino acids by attaching them to transfer RNAs to the association of messenger RNAs and aminoacyltransfer RNAs with ribosomes to the actual polymerization of amino acids into polypeptide chains.
kit methods, Non-kit methods, others or none used) for the isolation of DNA or RNA, involve the use of kit or non-kit methods, relating to the nucleic acid forms genomic DNA, microRNA, mRNA, ribosomal RNA (rRNA), small Interfering RNA (siRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) or other.
The technology identifies compounds that work through a unique mechanism of action: the target pathogen's ability to use transfer RNA (tRNA) in replication.
For example, transfer RNA affects a section of ribosomal RNA called the 530 loop, yet Noller's map places that loop far from the cleft.
From those studies, they concluded that the enzyme's docking site for transfer RNA consists of a groove with hydrophobic (water-repelling) protuberances as well as charged sections along the indentation.
Transfer RNA is made up of nucleic acids, the same material taht makes up DNA.
Alexander Rich, William Thompson Sedgewick Professor of Biophysics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is known for his discovery of left-handed DNA or Z-DNA and the three-dimensional structure of transfer RNA.
Their research concluded that this novel cytotoxic ribonuclease (RNase) displayed remarkable specificity toward transfer RNA (tRNA).
The reported studies, which were conducted in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health, establish that ONCONASE enters tumor and HIV-1 infected cells and selectively degrades cellular transfer RNA (tRNA), which further explains the molecular mechanism(s) of the observed anticancer and antiviral effects.
These therapeutic agents are designed to inhibit a family of enzymes called the transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetases which are found in virtually every biological cell.
The most extraordinary of these molecular factories is the ribosome, a molecular machine found in all living cells that assembles amino acids from transfer RNA (tRNA) building blocks into a peptide chain with an order defined by the sequence of the messenger RNA (mRNA) strand that it moves along.
p53), repetitive DNA sequences, ribosomal RNA (rRNA), small Interfering RNA (siRNA), small Nuclear RNA (snRNA), transfer RNA, translocation/fusion of genes, gene copy number and others.