transduction


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transduction

 [trans-duk´shun]
the transfer of a genetic fragment from one microorganism to another by bacteriophage.

trans·duc·tion

(tranz-dŭk'shŭn),
1. Transfer of genetic material (and its phenotypic expression) from one cell to another by viral infection.
2. A form of genetic recombination in bacteria.
3. Conversion of energy from one form to another.
[trans- + L. duco, pp. ductus, to lead across]

transduction

(trăns-dŭk′shən, trănz-)
n.
2. The transfer of genetic material from one cell to another, especially a bacterial cell, through the use of a bacteriophage.

trans·duc′tion·al adj.

trans·duc·tion

(trans-dŭk'shŭn)
1. Transfer of genetic material (and its phenotypic expression) from one cell to another by viral infection.
2. A form of genetic recombination in bacteria.
3. Conversion of energy from one form to another.
[trans- + L. duco, pp. ductus, to lead across]

transduction

1. The conversion of energy in one form into energy in another.
2. The transfer of a gene from one bacterial host to another by means of a phage.
3. The transfer of a gene from one cell host to another by a retrovirus.

transduction

  1. the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another, using a VIRUS as a vector. The donor is subjected to LYSIS, the recipient is infected with a transducing phage. See GENERALIZED TRANSDUCTION, SPECIALIZED TRANSDUCTION.
  2. the process of relaying a signal (e.g. a hormone) to an effector system to stimulate the appropriate cellular response.
  3. a process involved in conversion of one form of energy (e.g. light) into another (e.g. chemical).

transduction 

Generally, the conversion of one form of energy into another. Example: the transformation of light energy into receptor potentials in the photoreceptors of the retina (also called phototransduction). The absorption of light by the pigments of the photoreceptors triggers a cascade of biochemical events that leads to a change in ionic fluxes across the plasma membrane and to a change in resting potential from around −40 mV in the dark, to around −70 mV in light, that is a hyperpolarization of the cells. See depolarization; hyperpolarization; receptor potential; visual pigment.
References in periodicals archive ?
Cellular stimulation can lead to activation of different signal transduction mechanisms, such as alterations of the cytoplasmatic levels of different ions.
This volume of the proceedings of the Academy's meeting "Cell Signaling World: Signal Transduction Pathways as Therapeutic Targets" held January 2006 in Luxembourg addresses current research on signal transduction in such topics as bacterial endotoxin, expression and suppression of cytokine signaling-3, control of human herpes virus Type 8, regulation of apolipoprotein B secretions but not lipids by tumor necrosis factors, signaling pathways used by HSV-1 and by proteinase activated receptors and melphalan's role in the reduction of the severity of experimental colitis.
Specific topics include the organization of neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels on the neuronal surface; Type II MAGE proteins at the crossroads of cell death and neurogenesis; activation of the S100A13/FGF1 release pathway and a potential mechanism of tumor progression in human brain tumors; evidence for different modulation of gene expression in response to cadmium stress by neoplastic and human breast cells; MAPK signaling pathways as targets for gastrointestinal cancer therapy; receptors in human epidermoid carcinoma cells; signaling pathways in anticancer therapy; FLT3 signal transduction and leukemia; and a target for therapy in inflammation in peroxynitrite signaling.
Toxicologists who use microarrays hope to uncover relationships that link gene expression data to signal transduction pathways, gene networks that are often used to describe the sequence of biochemical events controlling cellular function.
University of Nebraska (Lincoln, NE) has patented methods for determining nucleic acid sequences that encode components of signal transduction pathways in higher plants.
"Using SLDB and PFE's percent dystrophin positive fibers data as a surrogate for transduction efficiency, we model that SLDB could achieve a transduction efficiency in the 40-60% range at their current dosing of 2E14 vg/kg, which, even at the high end of the range, is still considerably inferior to SRPT's ~81%."
It is a type of targeted therapy known as a signal transduction inhibitor.
The NIAID investigators found that when they included the LentiBOOST technology reagent into their standard GMP transduction manufacturing process, they reliably increased transduction efficiencies many-fold, achieving genome copy numbers of up to 1.5 to 3 copies per cell in the four patients who have been treated recently with cells manufactured with the new transduction method.
As transduction and manufacturing efficiencies are critical issues in gene therapy, SIRION's viral vectors are essential to the success of their partnering companies, said Dieter Lingelbach, Chief Operating Officer of SIRION Biotech.