transcultural nursing

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transcultural nursing a humanistic and scientific area of nursing study and practice that focuses on how patterns of behavior in health, illness, and caring are influenced by the values and beliefs of specific cultural groups. It applies this knowledge in the planning and provision of culturally appropriate care. The assumptions of transcultural nursing are that the practices and caring behaviors of cultural groups related to health and illness may be identified and analyzed. The goal of such analysis is the development of a body of knowledge to serve as the basis of culturally relevant care.

The focus of transcultural nursing is the differences between cultural groups that require care providers to identify culture specific health and illness practices and caring behaviors as well as to identify behaviors that transcend cultural groups and appear to be universal human care practices. The scope of transcultural nursing is the delivery of personalized care in health promotion and maintenance, as well as illness situations.
History. The field of transcultural nursing represented a shift from the biophysiological and psychological models that dominated nursing in the 1950s to a broader theoretical framework. One early and consistent proponent of the field has been Madeleine M. Leininger. Many other nurses and anthropologists have contributed significantly to the conceptualizations and research of transcultural nursing; some have used the terms cross-cultural and intercultural to describe their research and practice. These terms refer to the goal of gaining and using knowledge about cultural beliefs, values, and practices to plan culture-appropriate nursing interventions and/or to negotiate changes in health and health related behavior among different cultures.

Transcultural nursing is the blending of anthropological means of inquiry with nursing theories of intervention and practice, which have care as a critical component. Transcultural nursing incorporated a comparative method and holistic approach from anthropology as well as several anthropological concepts such as lifestyles, world view, life experiences, environmental contexts, and folk beliefs of cultural groups as a basis for understanding variations in human behavior. The comparative approach directs nurses not to treat all persons alike, but to adjust care to the culturally influenced expectations of the person and family. A nurse from mainstream American culture might be assertive when caring for other mainstream American clients, but might be less assertive when caring for Korean, Chinese, and Japanese clients who value less assertive behaviors.

The delivery of care that is culturally appropriate prevents unnecessary conflicts between clients and providers from varied cultural backgrounds. It also increases client satisfaction with care and may improve client adherence to a regimen that has been agreed upon with the nurse.

transcultural nursing

Etymology: L, trans + colere, to cultivate, nutrix, nurse
a field of nursing, founded by Madeleine Leininger, in which the nurse transcends ethnocentricity and practices nursing in other cultural environments. Because current nursing process and theory are not culturally bound and the needs of each person are considered individually, transcultural nursing is a part of all nursing practice.

trans·cul·tu·ral nurs·ing

(trans-kŭl'chŭr-ăl nŭrs'ing)
Provision of nursing care sensitive to cultural differences among members of a society.
References in periodicals archive ?
According to Leininger and McFarland, [13] care and culture are inextricably intertwined, and transcultural nursing focuses on the understanding of health-illness practices, beliefs and values from within patients' cultural groups.
The Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality supports the field of transcultural nursing and requires nurses to discover "dominant care constructs" and perform in-depth studies of cultures to identify the close relationship of care to culture and ways that culture care contributes to health and well-being.
The cultural safety model is positioned as substantively and significantly different to concepts of transcultural nursing care (Ramsden, 2002).
She is a Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) trainer and a certified Crucial Conversations trainer, and has a certificate in transcultural nursing.
In response to a growing emphasis on transcultural nursing and global health, nursing education is challenged to provide international experiences to enhance cultural competence and the global awareness of students and faculty.
In this regard, Leininger and McFarland (2002:543) are of the opinion that the ultimate goal of the transcultural nursing experience is to prepare nurses to be compassionate, competent, responsible and effective in their service to people regardless of their cultural origins or circumstances.
This year's recipient of the Luther Christman Award is an accomplished nurse, professor, and national and internationally known presenter on issues of transcultural nursing.
She was designated in 2006 as a Transcultural Nursing Scholar by the Transcultural Nursing Society.
Transcultural nursing concepts, theories, research and practice (3rd ed.
Culture care theory: a major contribution to advance transcultural nursing knowledge and practices Journal of Transcultural Nursing 2002;13(3):189-92.
She deduced the following reasons: (1) nurse educators often lack the preparation and knowledge base required to include theory and experience in this field, and (2) the school's location has an influence on the opportunity to practice transcultural nursing and to see it in operation by experience nurses.
Dula Pacquiao, professor and director of the Graduate Nursing Program, director of the Transcultural Nursing Institute at Kean University in Union, N.