transcultural nursing


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transcultural

 [trans-kul´chur-al]
transcultural nursing a humanistic and scientific area of nursing study and practice that focuses on how patterns of behavior in health, illness, and caring are influenced by the values and beliefs of specific cultural groups. It applies this knowledge in the planning and provision of culturally appropriate care. The assumptions of transcultural nursing are that the practices and caring behaviors of cultural groups related to health and illness may be identified and analyzed. The goal of such analysis is the development of a body of knowledge to serve as the basis of culturally relevant care.



The focus of transcultural nursing is the differences between cultural groups that require care providers to identify culture specific health and illness practices and caring behaviors as well as to identify behaviors that transcend cultural groups and appear to be universal human care practices. The scope of transcultural nursing is the delivery of personalized care in health promotion and maintenance, as well as illness situations.
History. The field of transcultural nursing represented a shift from the biophysiological and psychological models that dominated nursing in the 1950s to a broader theoretical framework. One early and consistent proponent of the field has been Madeleine M. Leininger. Many other nurses and anthropologists have contributed significantly to the conceptualizations and research of transcultural nursing; some have used the terms cross-cultural and intercultural to describe their research and practice. These terms refer to the goal of gaining and using knowledge about cultural beliefs, values, and practices to plan culture-appropriate nursing interventions and/or to negotiate changes in health and health related behavior among different cultures.



Transcultural nursing is the blending of anthropological means of inquiry with nursing theories of intervention and practice, which have care as a critical component. Transcultural nursing incorporated a comparative method and holistic approach from anthropology as well as several anthropological concepts such as lifestyles, world view, life experiences, environmental contexts, and folk beliefs of cultural groups as a basis for understanding variations in human behavior. The comparative approach directs nurses not to treat all persons alike, but to adjust care to the culturally influenced expectations of the person and family. A nurse from mainstream American culture might be assertive when caring for other mainstream American clients, but might be less assertive when caring for Korean, Chinese, and Japanese clients who value less assertive behaviors.

The delivery of care that is culturally appropriate prevents unnecessary conflicts between clients and providers from varied cultural backgrounds. It also increases client satisfaction with care and may improve client adherence to a regimen that has been agreed upon with the nurse.

trans·cul·tu·ral nurs·ing

(trans-kŭl'chŭr-ăl nŭrs'ing)
Provision of nursing care sensitive to cultural differences among members of a society.
References in periodicals archive ?
Introduction to transcultural nursing. St Louis Missour/USA: Mosby Elsevier, 2008.
In the 1990s, Ramsden critiqued transcultural nursing in the College of Nurses Praxis magazine: "It is not appropriate for those not belonging to an ethnic group to be 'experts' on that ethnic group," she wrote.
[20,22] According to Leininger in the theory of transcultural nursing, health care is an area of cultural science in the process of learning and nursing practice focusing on looking at the difference and similarity between cultures with respect to the care, being healthy, and ill based on human cultural values, beliefs, actions, and the knowledge used to provide nursing care particularly the culture or cultural integrity to the human being.
Cultural Relativism premise adopted by Leininger raises another question: "Cultural relativism has become a popular concept in anthropology and Transcultural Nursing. It refers to the position that, cultures are unique, and must be evaluated, according to their own values".
The growing interest in culture and healthcare dates back to the days of Florence Nightingale, who touched on the concept of transcultural nursing in the 19th century when advising British nurses working in India to take into account the cultural background of their patients.
(3) Lauren Clark, "A Humanizing Gaze for Transcultural Nursing Research Will Tell the Story of Health Disparities," Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 25(2): 122-128, accessed September 15, 2014, doi: 10.1177/1043659613515722.
Stemming from anthropology and nursing, the first transcultural nursing course was taught in the US by Leininger in 1966.
This person would have advanced multicultural training, preferably graduate level theory on transcultural nursing or cross-cultural communication, and would be the expert resource for students and faculty.
Transcultural nursing addresses cultural dynamics that affect the relationship between nurse and client.
The Journal of Advanced Nursing published six; Journal of Transcultural Nursing, five; Curationis, Oncology Nursing Forum and Public Health Nursing four each; and Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing and Nurse Education Today three each.