(41,42) Mammalian i[PLA.sub.2]/PNPLA isoforms include lipid hydrolases or transacylases with specificities for diverse lipids such as phospholipids, neutral lipids, sphingolipids, and retinol esters.
(group IVC [PLA.sub.2]), which uniquely lacks the C2 domain characteristic of the c[PLA.sub.2] family, is C-terminally farnesylated and possesses lysophospholipase and transacylase activities in addition to [PLA.sub.2] activity.
PNPLA1 acts as a unique transacylase, catalyzing the transfer of linoleic acid (LA; C18:2) in triglyceride to the [omega]-hydroxy residue of ultra-longchain fatty acid in ceramide to form [omega]-O-acylceramide, a lipid component essential for skin barrier function.
(2005) Identification of a novel keratinocyte retinyl ester hydrolase as a transacylase and lipase.
Conventionally, acyl chain remodeling involves the family of phospholipases A (PLAs), which catalyse the removal of an acyl chain from the glycerol moiety, and transacylases, which mediate reacylation with different FAs [114,116].
CL remodeling involves tafazzin, a transacylase which generates specific patterns of CL species .
Koehler, "The cardiolipin transacylase, tafazzin, associates with two distinct respiratory components providing insight into Barth syndrome," Molecular Biology of the Cell, vol.
Acyltransferases and transacylases
involved in fatty acid remodeling of phospholipids and metabolism of bioactive lipids in mammalian cells.
Patent 6,287,835 "Transacylases
of the paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway," protects the use of certain transacylase
genes to improve or produce paclitaxel and intermediates of the paclitaxel pathway such as baccatin.
In addition, molecular studies of the genes encoding the lipid and FA biosynthetic enzymes, including the desaturases and transacylases
, is now more readily undertaken because of the availability of heterologous probes for these genes from various higher plant species.