The normal hydration group showed noticeable improvement in the completion time of the trail-making test
after cycling when compared to their pre-cycling test.
In order to assess the participants' cognitive status (attention, processing speed, executive function, delayed and episodic memory, and recognition) and language abilities (naming, semantic fluency, and word recall), the following were used: (a) Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA; ); (b) trail-making test
, part A and part B (TMT A and TMT B; ); (c) digit forward and backward tests ; (d) repeat and word recognition and delayed memory; (e) verbal fluency ; and (f) Boston Naming Test (BNT; ).
The MoCA tests executive function via what's called the "trail-making test
" (see image).
A range of standardised neuropsychological measures (Biber Cognitive Estimation Test , Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status , verbal fluency measures , Modified Six Elements Test , and Trail-Making Test
) were used to measure an array of current cognitive functioning at induction to the study.
Measurements were the Chinese-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the Stroop Color-Word Test, the Trail-Making Test
, and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parents (BRIEF).
Demakis, "Frontal lobe damage and tests of executive processing: a meta-analysis of the Category Test, Stroop Test, and Trail-Making Test
," Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol.
Age showed a significant association with performance on trail-making test
. HDRS scores were associated with memory dysfunction.
Indeed, the sole metric where the long-duration fibrofog patients fared significantly worse was the Trail-Making Test
A, which provides a measure of spatial scanning and cognitive sequencing.
Most respondents (78%) reported routine and regular ("often") use of the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), 74% the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), 43% the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), 29% the Verbal Fluency Task (FAS), 32% the Three-word Recall (3WR), and 12% the Trail-making Test
We observed no improvement in executive function (Trail-making Test
B) in the exercise group.