This article which consisted of findings of a recent large clinical case series reported in medical literature is constituted for the purpose of screening the four types of the ablative surgical treatment methods (i.e., anterior cingulotomy, anterior capsulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy
, limbic leucotomy) and their safety and efficacy in patients with TRMD.
Surgeries such as anterior cingulotomy, anterior capsulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy
, and limbic leucotomy have been shown to effectively reduce depressive symptoms.
Later on, various neuroscientists around the world started patenting newer and safer modern psychosurgical procedures, such as: anterior cingulotomy (37), subcaudate tractotomy
(38), limbic leukotomy (39), anterior capsulotomy (40) and, more recently, deep brain stimulation.
was performed by Magara et al.
DREZ lesioning, myelotomy, tractotomy
, cingulotomy, or thalamotomy, in the hope of removing the short-circuited, dysfunctional pain-generating nerves from the normal neural system, or interrupting the feedback pathway to the brain.
Despite that, subcaudate tractotomy
, dorsal anterior cingulotomy, anterior capsulotomy and limbic leukotomywere were still limitedly applied due to the complications such as obesity, cognitive impairment, personality changes and epilepsy.
For instance, application of topical haemostatic agents, hepato-omentorrhaphy (a viable omental pedicle is packed into the hepatic wound and sutured to the edges of Glisson's capsule superficially), tractotomy
with finger fracture (i.e.
Neuropsychological processing associated with recovery from depression after stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy
. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(10), 1913-1916.
Stereotactic lesion procedures such as anterior cingulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy
, and anterior capsulotomy have been previously described for the treatment of psychiatric illness, and continue to be used on a small scale at expert centers, Dr.
The most common modern psychosurgical procedures are limbic leucotomy, capsulotomy, cingulotomy and subcaudate tractotomy
and involve a close collaboration between psychiatrists and neurosurgeons.
Target: anterior Fair cingulate and cingulum bundle Subcaudate tractotomy
. Target: Fair substantia innominata, just inferior to the caudate nucleus Limbic leucotomy.
Neurosurgery, such as limbic leukotomy or bilateral subcortical tractotomy
, may produce benefits for refractory patients whose severe symptoms make normal life impossible, but it remains very much a treatment of last resort, Dr.