tracheostomy


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Related to tracheostomy: tracheostomy care, tracheostomy tube

tracheostomy

 [tra″ke-os´tah-me]
creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, with insertion of an indwelling tube to facilitate passage of air or evacuation of secretions. The procedure may be an emergency measure or an elective one.

Tracheostomy Tubes. There are many types of tracheostomy tubes available, but the basic structure is the same. All are curved to accommodate the anatomy of the trachea and most consist of an outer cannula to maintain the patency of the airway and an inner cannula that fits snugly inside the outer cannula and can be removed for cleaning and removal of accumulated secretions without disturbing the operative site. An accessory to the tracheostomy tubes is the obturator (pilot), which is an olive-tipped curved rod that is used to guide the outer cannula and prevent scraping of the tracheal walls while the tube is being inserted.



The earliest tracheostomy tubes were made of silver and consisted of only the three basic components. Later models came with an adaptor on the inner cannula to allow connection with a ventilator. The plastic tracheostomy tubes that are popular today may or may not have an inner cannula, but most have an inflatable cuff attached. The inflatable cuff may be built on the outer cannula, or it may be applied as needed. The cuff that is to be applied must be the proper size in order to be effective. The purpose of the cuff is to hold the tube in place and prevent the flow of air around the outside of the outer cannula. This allows for more effective ventilation of the patient and prevents the aspiration of liquids into the trachea. The cuffs may maintain a constant high or low pressure. Some cuffs are attached to a balloon to allow the pressure to vary in response to conditions within the trachea, for example, when a patient coughs or changes position.
Patient Care. The primary concerns of tracheostomy care are maintenance of an adequate airway by keeping the tube free of secretions and prevention of infection. The patient is observed closely for signs of respiratory difficulty. If there is a change in the respiratory rate or a wheezing or crowing sound during inhalation, the tube is probably obstructed. If suctioning does not relieve the situation, emergency assistance should be sought immediately. Restlessness, pallor, and the development of cyanosis are indications of inadequate ventilation of the lungs resulting from obstruction of the airway.



Accidental expulsion of the outer cannula due to violent coughing or improperly tied tapes is rare; should it happen, however, a dilator or hemostat must be used to hold open the incision while another tube is inserted. A dilator, obturator, and tracheostomy tube of the same size as that in the patient are kept at the bedside at all times.

The mucus will be slightly blood-tinged immediately after the tracheostomy is performed, but it should gradually assume a normal color. If there is evidence of persistent bleeding, this should be reported, as it may indicate internal hemorrhage. The mucus is suctioned as necessary with an electric or wall suction apparatus. The size of the catheter to be used for suctioning will depend on the size of the tracheostomy tube. The catheter should be small enough to move freely into and out of the tube and large enough to aspirate secretions effectively. Air inhaled through a tracheostomy tube is moisturized to prevent drying and caking of secretions. The instillation of sterile saline to loosen secretions was formerly done but is no longer recommended.

Tracheostomy care is usually a sterile procedure. Selected patients in home care settings may use clean techniques. Special care must be taken to prevent introduction of infectious organisms into either the surgical wound or the respiratory tract. Standard tracheostomy kits are available and usually include gauze sponges, twill tape, disposable containers for hydrogen peroxide, a small brush, pipe cleaners, and a tracheostomy dressing that is slit so that it fits around the tube. If additional dressings are needed, gauze squares without fillers are used and loose strings must be avoided so that fibers and threads are not aspirated through the tube.

Patients with a permanent tracheostomy must be taught self-care before leaving the hospital. As they become accustomed to breathing through the tube, suctioning it as necessary and replacing the dressings, they will become less apprehensive. Patients must be cautioned against swimming, and should be warned to use care when taking a shower or bath that water is not aspirated through the tracheostomy. Newer models of tracheostomy tubes allow the patient to speak without manually closing off the opening through which air passes into the trachea.
Tracheostomy tube in place.
Parts of tracheostomy tube: A, Inner cannula. B, Outer cannula. C, Obturator.
Two-cuff tracheostomy tube. The advantage of the two-cuff tube is that during prolonged artificial respiration the cuffs may be inflated alternately to prevent pressure necrosis. Circle indicates portion of tube inflated after insertion in patient.

tra·che·os·to·my

(trā'kē-os'tŏ-mē),
An operation to make an opening into the trachea.
See also: tracheotomy.
[tracheo- + G. stoma, mouth]

tracheostomy

/tra·che·os·to·my/ (tra″ke-os´tah-me) creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, with the tracheal mucosa being brought into continuity with the skin; also, the opening so created.

tracheostomy

(trā′kē-ŏs′tə-mē)
n. pl. tracheosto·mies
1. Surgical construction of an opening in the trachea for the insertion of a catheter or tube to facilitate breathing.
2. The opening so made.

tracheostomy

[trā′kē·os′təmē]
Etymology: Gk, tracheia + stoma, mouth
an opening through the neck into the trachea through which an indwelling tube may be inserted. After tracheostomy the patient's chest is auscultated for breath sounds indicative of bilateral air exchange and pulmonary congestion, mucous membranes and fingertips are observed for cyanosis, oxygenation is monitored with pulse oximeters, and humidified oxygen is given via a trach collar placed over the tracheostomy tube. The patient is reassured that the tube is open and that air can pass through it. The tube is suctioned as needed to keep it free from tracheobronchial secretions by using a suction catheter attached to a Y-connector. The catheter is rotated, and intermittent suction is applied for no longer than 10 seconds. Complications of tracheostomy include pneumothorax, respiratory insufficiency, obstruction of the tracheostomy tube or its displacement from the lumen of the trachea, pulmonary infection, atelectasis, tracheoesophageal fistula, hemorrhage, and mediastinal emphysema. If the procedure was done as an emergency, the tracheostomy is closed after normal breathing is restored. If the tracheostomy is permanent, such as with a laryngectomy, the patient is taught self-care. Compare tracheotomy.

tracheostomy

Surgery The incision in the anterior wall of the trachea to establish an airway Indications Upper airway obstruction–due to congenital lesions or acute events-eg foreign body, diphtheria, bilateral voal cord paralysis, laryngeal neoplasms, regional trauma, edema, or anaphylactic reactions, or inability to handle upper or lower respiratory secretions Pros Relieves obstruction, ↓ dead air space, therefore the work required for effective ventilation; facilitates lavage Cons Loss of effective cough; ↑ susceptibility to infection, especially with Pseudomonas spp.

tra·che·ot·o·my

(trā'kē-ot'ŏ-mē)
The operation of creating an opening into the trachea, usually intended to be temporary.
Synonym(s): tracheostomy.
[tracheo- + G. tomē, incision]

tracheostomy

(tra?ke-os'to-me) [? + stoma, mouth]
Enlarge picture
TRACHEOSTOMY TUBE IN PLACE
Enlarge picture
TRACHEOSTOMY TUBE IN PLACE
The surgical opening of the trachea to provide and secure an open airway. This procedure may be performed in emergency situations (e.g., when there is an acute upper airway obstruction) or electively to replace a temporary airway provided by an endotracheal tube that has been in place or is anticipated to remain in place for more than 10 to 12 days. See: illustration; endotracheal tube

CAUTION!

To avoid injury to the structures of the neck, tracheostomy should be performed only by skilled or well-trained health care professionals.

Patient care

Vital signs are monitored frequently after surgery. Warm, humidified oxygen is administered. The patient is placed in the semi-Fowler position to promote ease of breathing. A restful environment is provided. Communication is established by questions with simple yes and no answers, hand signals, and simple sign language and with use of a slate or an alphabet board for writing. (Written communication requires vision, hand strength, and dexterity and is often difficult or impossible for acutely ill patients.) Later, the patient is taught how to cover the tracheostomy with the cuff deflated to facilitate speech, or is provided with a speaking valve and taught how to use it. Before the patient is able to speak, the nurse should be alert to the patient's unmet needs and assist to prevent increased anxiety. Chest physiotherapy promotes aeration of the lung. Suctioning of secretions with prehyperoxygenation and posthyperoxygenation and tracheostomy care are provided as necessary, using aseptic technique throughout. Dressing is changed frequently during the first 24 hr postoperatively, and the surgical site is observed for excessive bleeding. Coughing and deep breathing are encouraged at regular intervals. A teaching plan should cover stoma care, which includes cleansing, removing crusts, and filtering air with a suitable filter. The patient and his or her health care team should watch for signs of infection, such as reddening of the skin or drainage of pus from the surgical site. Aspiration is a risk for all tracheostomized patients, but may be reduced when a speaking valve is used. The patient is assessed for signs and symptoms of aspiration, including changes in secretion production, fever, and mental status changes. The patient should not smoke and should avoid secondhand smoke. Activities may be gradually increased to include noncontact sports but should not include swimming. Showering may be permitted if the patient wears a protective plastic bib or uses a hand to cover the stoma. The patient should be reassured that secretions will decrease and that taste and smell will gradually return. If a speaking valve is used, the patient is taught to clean it daily with water and mild, fragrance-free soap, to rinse it thoroughly and allow it to air dry, and to place it in its storage container when not in use. The importance of follow-up care with an ear, nose, and throat specialist is stressed.

mini-tracheostomy

Placement of a 4 mm (about 1/6th of an inch) cannula through an incision made through the cricothyroid membrane into the trachea. This is done using local anesthesia. This type of tracheostomy is esp. useful in removing sputum retained in the tracheobronchial tree.
illustration

tracheostomy

An operation to make an artificial opening through the front of the neck into the windpipe (trachea). A tube is then inserted to maintain the opening and allow breathing. Tracheostomy is necessary when life is threatened by obstruction to the airway or when breathing must be maintained artificially for long periods by an air pump.

Tracheostomy

An opening through the neck into the trachea through which a tube may be inserted to maintain an effective airway and help a patient breathe.

tracheostomy (trāˈ·kē·äsˑ·t·mē),

n surgical procedure used to create an opening into the trachea through the neck that allows the insertion of a tube to restore normal breathing.
Enlarge picture
Tracheostomy.

tra·che·ot·o·my

(trā'kē-ot'ŏ-mē)
The operation of creating an opening into the trachea, usually intended to be temporary.
Synonym(s): tracheostomy.
[tracheo- + G. tomē, incision]

tracheostomy (trā´kēos´tōmē),

n 1. the formation of an opening into the trachea and the suturing of the edges of the opening to an opening in the skin of the neck.
2. surgical formation of an opening into the trachea, usually through the tracheal rings below the cricoid cartilage, to give the patient an airway.

tracheostomy

creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, with insertion of an indwelling tube to facilitate passage of air or evacuation of secretions. The procedure may be an emergency measure or an elective one.

tracheostomy tube
two identical down-curving, semicircular tubes are fitted one inside the other. They both have wide flanges which fit against the skin when the tubes are inserted in and down through the tracheostomy incision. When the tubes are snugly in position the inner tube is rotated through 180° making the tube self-retaining.
References in periodicals archive ?
With tracheostomy already performed and upper airway too edematous to allow an intubation as well as the associated cervical spine fracture, the only possible route of extraction of the denture was via the tracheostomy.
We describe Coblation as a novel approach to removing distal tracheal granulation tissue in a patient with a well-established tracheostomy and difficult-to-visualize anatomy.
An observational, descriptive study was performed in a cohort of patients admitted to the ICU with indication for tracheostomy during 2012.
7,9] Proper placement of the tracheostomy and tracheostomy tube, use of thin-walled cuffs to minimise movement of the tracheostomy tube relative to the trachea and initiation of weaning as early as possible may help in curtailing trauma to the trachea.
After checking haemogram of animal and confirmation of establishment of nasal respiration, tracheostomy wound was re-approached.
Patient with tracheostomy parasitized in hospital by larvae of the screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax.
All patients who underwent tracheostomy aged younger than 12 years in various departments such as otorhinolaryngology, surgery, and pediatrics of Government Medical College, Baroda, Gujarat, India, were counseled for enrolment in the study.
Keywords: Percutaneous tracheostomy, Fiberoptic bronchoscopy, Peroperative complications, Griggs technique, Intensive care units, Critical illness, Mechanical ventilation.
Among these, patients who were ventilated were identified and a case note review was performed with respect to type of tracheostomy and subsequent events.
The majority of previous studies to examine the association between tracheostomy and outcomes in patients with ventilator use are conducted in hospitals with the limited study sample.