In terms of phytocoenotic confinement, tracheophyte
plants are dominated by meadow (48.
Generally, however, the filiation sequence has been relatively clear: chlorophytes, then charophytes, then either liverworts or hornworts, then mosses, and finally, tracheophytes
Because hornworts have wall xylans, stomates, and a well-differentiated sporophyte meristem similar to those of tracheophytes
, there is reason to suspect they are closer to the tracheophytes
The Hornworts (Anthocerophytina) are a small (about 500 species in 12 genera) but evolutionarily important group as the most current phylogenies find them to be the closest extant relatives of the tracheophytes
(Carafa et al.