Dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, tracheomalacia
, recurrent respiratory infections, nephrolithiasis, urinary tract infections, and renal scarring are common long-term issues (Raam, Pineda-Alvarez, Hadley, & Solomon, 2011).
Deep sedation for abortion was avoided in our patient because tracheomalacia
was suspected due to the long-standing nature of thyroid swelling, thereby averting the event of tracheal collapse.
Major complications were categorized as (i) accidental decannulation with airway compromise, (ii) pneumothorax necessitating chest tube, (iii) hemorrhage requiring surgery, (iv) tracheomalacia
, (v) esophagotracheal fistula, (vi) fistula of the tracheoinnominate artery, and (vii) death caused by tracheotomy (cardiac or respiratory arrest during procedure).
Lower risk factors include the medication of corticosteroids, tracheomalacia
, malpositioning of the tube, poor medical conditions, excessive coughing and misuse of the stylet.
Late complications include tracheal stenosis, tracheocutaneous fistula (TCF), trachea-innominate artery erosion, and tracheomalacia
. Cervical aerocele following TCF repair is rare.
The boy, who has a respiratory condition known as tracheomalacia
, was taken by Weber to a St.
 Other less frequent conditions like tracheomalacia
, spina bifida and exomphalos are associated with EA.
Late complications include: bleeding, hypoxia, blockage or/and displacement of the tracheal cannula, local infections, voice changes, tracheal stenosis, persistent stoma, dysphagia, disfiguring scar, and tracheomalacia
Differential diagnosis of wheeze in children <5 years of age* Category Disease entity Congenital upper airway Complete tracheal rings Tracheomalacia
Laryngomalacia Vocal cord palsy/paresis Subglottic stenosis/post-intubation/ congenital Congenital lower airway Vascular rings/slings Bronchomalacia Aspiration Gastroesophageal reflux disease Swallowing inco-ordination Laryngeal cleft Tracheo-oesophageal fistula Bronchiectasis Cystic fibrosis Primary ciliary dyskinesia Persistent bacterial bronchitis Primary immunodeficiency HIV Endobronchial lesions Foreign body Tuberculosis granuloma Malignancies Cardiac Enlarged heart Congenital heart disease (left-to-right shunts) * Adapted from White et al.
Minor complications have been reported as; hemorrhage without any surgical intervention, subcutaneous emphysema, keloid, decannulation, wound infection while major complications as; hemorrhage that required surgical intervention, decannulation with a high risk of airway failure, pneumothorax requiring chest tube insertion, esophagotracheal fistula, tracheomalacia
, tracheoinnominate artery fistula and death due to tracheotomy.4,5 Thus, performing OST by residents, early in the training program, may cause concerns from the point of possible complications.
Another condition she has, called tracheomalacia
, can stop her from breathing and lead to her turning blue when she cries.
may worsen these symptoms.