Miller reported that the trachealis muscle consists of transverse bands that unite with the cornua of C-shaped tracheal cartilage
Age and sex distribution, body height, length of the trachea, number of the cartilaginous rings per centimetre of the trachea in resting and maximally stretched positions and the number of the tracheal cartilages
are represented in Table I.
The rings were incomplete dorsally but bridged by tracheal muscles between the ends of the tracheal cartilages
to be entirely membranous (paries membranaceus) without cartilaginous support.
The mass, which was attached to the left posterolateral tracheal wall, was detached from the first and second tracheal cartilages
along with the overlying mucosa.
(11) The recurrent nerves of this bird were torn when the adhered sternotracheal muscles were being dissected from the abnormal tracheal cartilages
. The permanent change in vocalization may have been associated with damaged innervation to the syringeal muscles.
There was no tracheal cartilage
tenderness, and chest computed tomography showed neither interstitial pneumonia nor tracheal stenosis.
Because of lack of response to medical therapy, 5 tracheal cartilages
were surgically resected and an end-to-end tracheal anastomosis was performed.
Examination of the excised specimen showed that a transglottic tumor had involved the upper two tracheal cartilages
, the laryngeal cartilage, and the thyroid gland (figure 4).