trace conditioning

trace con·di·tion·ing

conditioning when there is no temporal overlap between the conditioning stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus.
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Most research on eyeblink conditioning has focused on delay and trace conditioning. In delay conditioning the CS is presented and remains on until the US is presented, whereas in trace conditioning a silent interval (the trace interval) is interposed between CS termination and US onset.
In collaboration with Sparks, we sought to assess the effects of a cholesterol diet on trace conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response [32].
In each of our trace conditioning experiments, acquisition of a conditioned response was a function of the trace interval and usually took many days of training to reach asymptote, and this asymptote tended to be lower than that seen using delay conditioning [17].
We next conducted a seminal experiment [46] in which we added 0.12 parts per million (ppm) copper as copper sulfate to distilled drinking water and found that the levels of beta amyloid in cholesterol-fed rabbits had increased over previous levels to the point of generating extracellular plaques and, importantly, these rabbits showed a deficit in trace conditioning relative to controls.
The data in Figure 3 show both the level of responding during trace conditioning and the number of beta amyloid immune-positive neurons in the cortex and hippocampus of the two groups.
Using a trace conditioning paradigm, we found that cholesterol facilitated rabbit HR conditioning and that the unconditioned HR response to shock was also modified by conditioning [49].
In an experiment by Darwish and colleagues, we trained rabbits to asymptotic levels of NMR tracing conditioning and then instituted an 8-week diet of 2% cholesterol or normal chow before assessing the memory of trace conditioning by presenting the tone alone over a period of days during extinction [115].
Because the conditioned stimulus (CS) is terminated prior to the unconditioned stimulus (US), taste-aversion conditioning is defined as a type of trace conditioning. If the interval between CS offset and US onset (trace interval) is prolonged (long-trace conditioning), conditioning is relatively weak in comparison with conditioning using brief (less than 1 min) trace intervals (short-trace conditioning).
Trace conditioning with X-rays as an aversive stimulus.
* Trace conditioning. This procedure has been suggested as a model for explicit (conscious) working memory [14,15].
During trace conditioning, significant activity to CS+ versus CS- was found in the anterior portion of the vermis cerebelli, putamen, and the inferior parietal cortex.
The CS+ in trace conditioning yielded a significant activity in the right IPL and STG.