We thank Chiba University Research Center for Pathogenic Fungi and for Microbial Toxicoses
for providing the Candida strains.
Acute blood loss and hemorrhagic shock can be seen in both birds and mammals as a consequence of trauma, internal bleeding associated with neoplasia or ulceration, or coagulopathies due to toxicoses
or liver disease or after surgical interventions.
allergic rhinitis and asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis), toxicoses
Because of the previously diagnosed cases of cholecalciferol toxicoses
and the location of this bird's aviary as one of the group of connected aviaries with a history of cholecalciferol exposure (Fig 1), the bird was hospitalized and treated with subcutaneous fluids (0.
25) In psittacine bird species, the osmolar gap has the same theoretical use as in mammals for diagnosing certain toxicoses
, but the occurrence of these types of toxicoses
in pet birds (eg, ethylene glycol, methanol, paraldehyde) is rare and largely unreported, except in anseriformes and galliformes.
Diagnostic and clinically important aspects of cyanobacteriel (blue-green algae) toxicoses
Although copper toxicosis is rare, iron and zinc toxicoses
are regularly reported.
3,15) Anemia with altered iron and Hgb metabolism has been associated with heavy metal toxicoses
Chapters 27 through 32 present updates and monographs on specific diseases, such as avian chlamydiosis, mycobacteriosis, various mycoses, macrorhabdosis, toxicoses
, and viruses.