Although the data as a whole do not support a consistent adverse effect of TCVs on primate development, factors that may modulate the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics
of thimerosal--such as genetics, sex, birth weight, gestational age, maternal health, and chemical coexposures--should be thoroughly investigated.
Effect of neferine on toxicodynamics
of dichiorvos for inhibiting rabbit cholinesterase.
His topics include unwanted chemical substances, toxicodynamics
, naturally inherent plant toxicants, mycotoxins, pesticides and persistent organic pollutants, food additives and flavorings, food allergies and intolerances, and genetically modified organisms.
Development of effective chelating agent is based on combinations of chemical considerations and whole animal experimentation on the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics
of metal and chelating agents, followed by clinical experience, with regard to monitoring metal excretion and status of tissue damage.
The guidance is divided into four main sections covering each of the four different areas where CSAFs can be introduced: interspecies differences in toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics
, and human variability in toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics
Further information on the toxicodynamics
of CMS (and colistin) is urgently required for its use in the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram negative bacteria.
Epidemiological studies provide little basis to compare chemicals, including new chemicals with little or no data, and risk assessments still typically assume that more sensitive individuals or subpopulations are adequately protected by applying an "uncertainty" factor of 10, the product of factors of 10 1/2 each for toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics
(Zeise et al.
The book explains the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics
of elements influenced by carriers, valence state and isotopes, particle size, element ligands, organic versus inorganic element species and biotransformations with resultant health effects.
The current approach is more conservative and can be modified further by incorporation of age-specific adjustment factors if a pharmaceutical is known to be particularly toxic to a certain life stage according to variability in toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics
(Daston et al.
Sex differences in metal toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics
have been described for some metals, including MeHg (Vahter et al.
Both additivity models assume no interaction between the compounds, neither on a physicochemical level nor in their toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics
Experimental models suggest that oxidative stress plays an important role in the toxicodynamics
of mercury (Grotto et al.