toxic megacolon


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megacolon

 [meg″ah-ko´lon]
dilatation and hypertrophy of the colon.
Megacolon. From McKinney et al., 2000
acquired megacolon colonic enlargement associated with chronic constipation, but with normal ganglion cell innervation.
acute megacolon toxic megacolon.
aganglionic megacolon (congenital megacolon) Hirschsprung's disease.
toxic megacolon acute dilatation of the colon associated with amebic dysentery or ulcerative colitis; called also acute megacolon.

tox·ic meg·a·co·lon

acute nonobstructive dilation of the colon, seen in fulminating ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease.

toxic megacolon

Acute megacolon, toxic dilation of colon Gastroenterology A life-threatening complication of GI disease, resulting in transmural inflammation and toxic Sx due to colonic dilation Etiology ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, amebiasis, pseudomembranous colitis, typhoid, bacterial dysentery, Hirschsprung's disease Clinical Abdominal pain, distension, fever, tachycardia, fatigue, dehydration, ↓ bowel sounds, tympany, rebound tenderness, hypotension Contributing factors Laxatives, opiate use, anticholinergics, hypopotassemia Lab Leukocytosis–> 20,000/mm3, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, ↓ K+ Complications Perforation, peritonitis, septicemia Management Resuscitation, metabolic support, correct fluid and electrolyte derangements, corticosteroids, subtotal colectomy and ileostomy, salvage rectal sphincter if possible. Cf Megacolon.

tox·ic meg·a·co·lon

(tok'sik meg'ă-kō'lŏn)
Acute nonobstructive dilation of the colon, seen in fulminating ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease.

toxic megacolon

A gaseous ballooning or dilatation of the colon occurring as a complication of inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. The danger is of perforation which carries a high mortality. The condition can often be relieved by turning the patient into the prone position.

Toxic megacolon

Acute enlargement or dilation of the large intestine.

tox·ic meg·a·co·lon

(tok'sik meg'ă-kō'lŏn)
Acute nonobstructive dilation of the colon.
References in periodicals archive ?
If symptoms progress despite treatments, a surgical consult may be recommended to rule out toxic megacolon, peritonitis, or sepsis (Sunenshine & McDonald, 2006).
Surgery is a last resort for the treatment of unmanageable CDAD with toxic megacolon or colon perforations.
The ileus can range in severity from mild to toxic megacolon requiring surgery.
difficile infection may range from asymptomatic colonization to severe diarrhea, toxic megacolon, perforation and even death.
Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is both the most common and the most severe manifestation of the problem, with potential complications including colitis, ileitis, toxic megacolon, and death.
The 210 specialists who noted increased disease severity had encountered 435 patients with toxic megacolon (including 181 requiring colectomy), 94 patients with colonic perforations, and 198 associated patient deaths.
Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming bacterium that can invade the intestines and cause severe diarrhea, colitis (inflammation of the large intestine), toxic megacolon (severe inflammation and distention of the large intestine), sepsis (life-threatening infection in the bloodstream), bowel perforation and, in the most serious cases, death.
To prevent the risk of precipitating a toxic megacolon, loperamide should not be given to severely ill patients.
Pseudomembranous colitis associated with Clostridium difficile is an entity characterized typically by severe diarrhea during or after treatment with antibiotics, with symptoms ranging from mild diarrhea to colitis with toxic megacolon.