toxic megacolon


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megacolon

 [meg″ah-ko´lon]
dilatation and hypertrophy of the colon.
Megacolon. From McKinney et al., 2000
acquired megacolon colonic enlargement associated with chronic constipation, but with normal ganglion cell innervation.
acute megacolon toxic megacolon.
aganglionic megacolon (congenital megacolon) Hirschsprung's disease.
toxic megacolon acute dilatation of the colon associated with amebic dysentery or ulcerative colitis; called also acute megacolon.

tox·ic meg·a·co·lon

acute nonobstructive dilation of the colon, seen in fulminating ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease.

toxic megacolon

Acute megacolon, toxic dilation of colon Gastroenterology A life-threatening complication of GI disease, resulting in transmural inflammation and toxic Sx due to colonic dilation Etiology ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, amebiasis, pseudomembranous colitis, typhoid, bacterial dysentery, Hirschsprung's disease Clinical Abdominal pain, distension, fever, tachycardia, fatigue, dehydration, ↓ bowel sounds, tympany, rebound tenderness, hypotension Contributing factors Laxatives, opiate use, anticholinergics, hypopotassemia Lab Leukocytosis–> 20,000/mm3, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, ↓ K+ Complications Perforation, peritonitis, septicemia Management Resuscitation, metabolic support, correct fluid and electrolyte derangements, corticosteroids, subtotal colectomy and ileostomy, salvage rectal sphincter if possible. Cf Megacolon.

tox·ic meg·a·co·lon

(tok'sik meg'ă-kō'lŏn)
Acute nonobstructive dilation of the colon, seen in fulminating ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease.

toxic megacolon

A gaseous ballooning or dilatation of the colon occurring as a complication of inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. The danger is of perforation which carries a high mortality. The condition can often be relieved by turning the patient into the prone position.

Toxic megacolon

Acute enlargement or dilation of the large intestine.

tox·ic meg·a·co·lon

(tok'sik meg'ă-kō'lŏn)
Acute nonobstructive dilation of the colon.
References in periodicals archive ?
Avoid antiperistaltic agents, which can obscure symptoms and precipitate toxic megacolon. (2) Discontinue an antibiotic, if the patient is taking one, as soon as possible after the original infection has been adequately treated.
difficile colitis, including peritonitis, toxic megacolon, sepsis, acute renal failure, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome.
Antimotility agents are not indicated, since they impair host responses and increase the risk of toxic megacolon.
Loperamide-related toxic megacolon in Clostridium difficile colitis.
Toxic megacolon (TM) is a rare but potentially lifethreatening complication of acute severe colitis.
The differential diagnosis should include mechanical obstruction, fecal impaction, volvulus, and toxic megacolon [10].
At the hospital, toxic megacolon and septicemia were diagnosed, and the patient underwent immediate surgery to remove his entire colon and perform an ileostomy.
The ileus can range in severity from mild to toxic megacolon requiring surgery.
difficile infection may range from asymptomatic colonization to severe diarrhea, toxic megacolon, perforation and even death.
Here are some other favorites I've heard from residents and fellows: postcoital headache, toxic megacolon (no kidding), vasovagal, X-ray dye, and digital exam (the digit is not being examined, and it is neither analog nor digital).
Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is both the most common and the most severe manifestation of the problem, with potential complications including colitis, ileitis, toxic megacolon, and death.
The 210 specialists who noted increased disease severity had encountered 435 patients with toxic megacolon (including 181 requiring colectomy), 94 patients with colonic perforations, and 198 associated patient deaths.