The seeds are rich in toxalbumins
that cause agglutination and hemolysis to erythrocytes as well as damage to other cell types and contain a lipoid resin complex that can cause dermatitis [3, 12, 135].
Toxic proteins or toxalbumins
have been found in Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, etc.
The cytotoxic plants include (1) the toxalbumins
, the toxin (ricin) of which one, the castor bean (Ricinus communis), has been weaponized; (2) the mitotic inhibitors, many of which are highly effective as cancer chemotherapeutics; and (3) the cyanogenic glycosides contained in the kernels of several fruits, including apples, apricots, cherries, peaches, and plums (Table 1).
While the exact toxic principles are yet to be defined, various anthraquinones and their derivatives like emodin glycosides, toxalbumins
, and other alkaloids are usually blamed for C.
Ricin is one of several toxalbumins
that exert toxicity by inhibiting protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells (1,2).
Various anthraquinones and their derivatives, emodin glycosides, toxalbumins
and other alkaloids are the few compounds blamed for the cassia toxicity (13, 23).