tourniquet test


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tourniquet

 [toor´nĭ-ket]
a device for compression of an artery or vein; uses include stopping of the excessive bleeding of a hemorrhage, maintenance of a nearly bloodless operative field, prevention of spread of snake venom after a snakebite, and aiding in obtaining blood samples or giving intravenous injections.



For hemorrhage, a tourniquet should be used only as a last resort, when the bleeding is so severe that it is threatening the life of the injured person and cannot be stopped by direct pressure. In the case of snakebite, a moderately tight tourniquet may be applied to impede the spread of venom while not stopping arterial blood flow. For an intravenous injection, a loosely applied tourniquet inhibits blood flow in the superficial veins, making them more prominent so that a vein can be found for the injection. For maintenance of a nearly bloodless operative field, pneumatic tourniquets are often used. The American Association of Operating Room Nurses (AORN) has published guidelines for the use of tourniquets during surgery; see their web site at http://www.aorn.org.
To apply a tourniquet for control of arterial bleeding from the arm: Wrap a gauze pad twice with a strip of cloth just below the armpit and tie with a half knot; tie a stick at the knot with a square knot. Slowly twist stick to tighten.
tourniquet test one involving the application of a tourniquet to a limb, as in determination of capillary fragility (denoted by the appearance of petechiae) or of the status of the collateral circulation.

cap·il·lar·y fra·gil·i·ty test

a tourniquet test used to determine the presence of vitamin C deficiency or thrombocytopenia; a circle 2.5 cm in diameter, the upper edge of which is 4 cm below the crease of the elbow, is drawn on the inner aspect of the forearm, pressure midway between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure is applied above the elbow for 15 minutes, and a count of petechiae within the circle is made: 10, normal; 10-20, marginal; more than 20, abnormal.

tourniquet test

A test used to determine pain thresholds or, alternately, capillary fragility. A blood pressure cuff is inflated sufficiently to occlude venous return. It is kept in place for a set time. The anesthetic effect, or the impact on skin integrity, is subsequently assessed.
References in periodicals archive ?
Table: Comparison of tourniquet test results with dengue IgM/IgG (n=160).
The tourniquet test was considered positive when 20 or more petechiae were observed in the 2.5 cm square.
A total of 160 cases were enrolled to determine the diagnostic accuracy of tourniquet test for diagnosis of dengue infection.
As noted above though specificity of Tinel's sign is high, the sensitivity is not; hence, the author has attempted to increase the sensitivity also by adding tourniquet test and Tinel's with tourniquet test to the former to make a series of three tests in continuum.
The new test, namely Tinel's test followed by Tourniquet test and then Tinel's with Tourniquet test (T, TT, TTT) helped to increase the sensitivity of the Tinel's test, which is usually considered a test with high specificity.
Tourniquet test (TT) is recommended as a screening tool for dengue infection.
Tourniquet test: Its value as a screening test in dengue.
Diagnosis: Clinical diagnosis: The clinical manifestations of dengue fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever with or without shock can be helpful in making a provisional diagnosis: One study of children with febrile illnesses in Thailand reported that some clinical features, such as a positive tourniquet test, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and increased serum AST levels, were more frequent in patients with dengue fever than in those with other febrile illnesses.
Evaluation of the World Health Organization Standard tourniquet test In the diagnosis of dengue infection in Vietnam.
Grade 1 includes fever with nonspecific symptoms; the only hemorrhagic manifestation is a positive tourniquet test, easy bruising, or both.
Dengue Scrub P value fever(N=39) typhus(N=19) Rural 15(38.4%) 15(78.9%) <0.05 Urban 19(48.7%) 04(21%) <0.05 Male: female ratio 1.3:1 1:1.2 >0.05 Mean age 20.8YR 36.2YR -- Mean hospital stay 1WEEK 1WEEK -- Mean duration 4.6 days 3.1days >0.05 of fever at the time of admission Rash 06(15.3%) 03(15.7%) >0.05 Arthralgia 18(46.1%) 03(15.7%) <0.05 Haemorrhagic 24(61.5%) 02(10.5%) <0.05 manifestations Positive 11 (28.2%) <0.05 tourniquet test Altered liver 22(56.4%) 02(10.5%) <0.05 function tests Thrombocytopenia 28(71.7%) 12(63.1%) >0.05