torsemide

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torsemide

 [tor´sĕ-mīd]
a diuretic related to sulfonylurea, used in treatment of edema and hypertension, administered orally or intravenously.

torsemide (torasemide (UK))

Pharmacologic class: Loop diuretic

Therapeutic class: Diuretic, antihypertensive

Pregnancy risk category B

Action

Inhibits sodium and chloride reabsorption from ascending loop of Henle and distal renal tubule; increases renal excretion of water, sodium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, and hydrogen. Also may exert renal and peripheral vasodilatory effects. Net effect is natriuretic diuresis.

Availability

Injection: 10 mg/ml

Tablets: 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 100 mg

Indications and dosages

Heart failure

Adults: 10 to 20 mg P.O. or I.V. daily. If response inadequate, double dosage until desired response occurs. Don't exceed 200 mg as a single dose.

Hypertension

Adults: 5 mg P.O. daily. May increase to 10 mg daily after 4 to 6 weeks; if drug still isn't effective, additional antihypertensives may be prescribed.

Chronic renal failure

Adults: 20 mg P.O. or I.V. daily. If response inadequate, double dosage until desired response occurs. Don't exceed 200 mg as a single dose.

Hepatic cirrhosis

Adults: 5 or 10 mg P.O. or I.V. daily, given with aldosterone antagonist or potassium-sparing diuretic. If response inadequate, double dosage. Don't exceed 40 mg as a single dose.

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug, thiazides, or sulfonylureas
• Anuria

Precautions

Use cautiously in:
• severe hepatic disease accompanied by cirrhosis or ascites, preexisting uncorrected electrolyte imbalances, diabetes mellitus, worsening azotemia
• elderly patients
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients
• children younger than age 18.

Administration

• Give I.V. by direct injection over at least 2 minutes or by continuous I.V. infusion.
• Flush I.V. line with normal saline solution before and after administering.

Adverse reactions

CNS: dizziness, headache, asthenia, insomnia, nervousness, syncope

CV: hypotension, ECG changes, chest pain, volume depletion, atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, shunt thrombosis

EENT: rhinitis, sore throat

GI: nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, constipation, dyspepsia, anorexia, rectal bleeding, GI hemorrhage

GU: excessive urination

Metabolic: hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, hypokalemia

Musculoskeletal: joint pain, myalgia

Respiratory: increased cough

Skin: rash

Other: edema

Interactions

Drug-drug. Aminoglycosides, cisplatin: increased risk of ototoxicity

Amphotericin B, corticosteroids, mezlocillin, piperacillin, potassium-wasting diuretics, stimulant laxatives: additive hypokalemia

Antihypertensives, nitrates: additive hypotension

Lithium: increased lithium blood level and toxicity

Neuromuscular blockers: prolonged neuromuscular blockade

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, probenecid: inhibited diuretic response

Sulfonylureas: decreased glucose tolerance, hyperglycemia in patients with previously well-controlled diabetes

Drug-diagnostic tests. Glucose, uric

acid: increased levels

Potassium: decreased level

Drug-herbs. Dandelion: interference with diuresis

Ephedra (ma huang): reduced hypotensive effect of torsemide

Geranium, ginseng: increased risk of diuretic resistance

Licorice: rapid potassium loss

Drug-behaviors. Acute alcohol ingestion: additive hypotension

Patient monitoring

• Monitor vital signs, especially for hypotension.
• Assess ECG for arrhythmias and other changes.
• Monitor weight and fluid intake and output to assess drug efficacy.
• Monitor electrolyte levels, particularly potassium. Stay alert for signs and symptoms of hypokalemia.
• Assess hearing for signs and symptoms of ototoxicity.
• Monitor blood glucose level carefully in diabetic patient.

Patient teaching

• Advise patient to take in morning with or without food.
• Instruct patient to move slowly when sitting up or standing, to avoid dizziness from sudden blood pressure drop.
• Tell patient to monitor weight and report sudden increases.
• Instruct diabetic patient to monitor blood glucose level carefully.
• Caution patient to avoid alcohol during drug therapy.
• Advise patient to consult prescriber before using herbs.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.

torsemide

/tor·se·mide/ (tor´sĕ-mīd) a diuretic related to sulfonylurea, used in the treatment of edema and hypertension.

torsemide

(tôr′sə-mīd′)
n.
A loop diuretic used to treat edema caused by congestive heart failure, renal disease, and other conditions, and to treat hypertension.

torsemide

[tor′sĕ-mīd]
a loop diuretic related to sulfonylurea, used in treatment of edema and hypertension. It is administered orally or intravenously.

torsemide (tor´səmīd´),

n brand name: Demadox;
drug class: loop diuretic;
action: acts on loop of Henle to decrease the reabsorption of chloride and sodium with resultant diuresis;
uses: treatment of hypertension and edema associated with congestive heart failure (CHF), liver disease, and chronic renal failure.